Słowa na G-5

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término definición
poważny, ponury, nieprzyjemny
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2 (used about a situation, news, etc.) unpleasant or worrying We face the grim prospect of even higher inflation. The news is grim, I’m afraid. ▶ nieprzyjemny ponury
grim /ɡrɪm; US / adj. (grimmer; grimmest) 1 (used about a person) very serious; not smiling The fireman’s face was grim when he came out of the burning house. ▶ poważny ponury
ponury, brzydki
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3 (used about a place) unpleasant to look at; not attractive a grim block of flats ▶ ponury brzydki 4[not before a noun] (Brit., informal) feeling ill I was feeling grim yesterday but I managed to get to work. ▶ chory □ grimly/ adv. ▶ ponuro
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□ grimace verb [intransitive] She grimaced with pain. ▶ robić grymas wykrzywiać twarz w grymasie (np. bólu)
grimace /ˈɡrɪməs; US ɡrɪˈmeɪs / noun [countable] an ugly expression on your face that shows that you are angry, disgusted or that sth is hurting you a grimace of pain ▶ grymas
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grimy /ˈɡraɪmi; US / adj. (grimier; grimiest) very dirty ▶ bardzo brudny ⇨ look at filthy
grime /ɡraɪm; US / noun [uncountable] a thick layer of dirt ▶ brud
uśmiechać się szeroko
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□ grin noun [countable] ▶ szeroki uśmiech
grin /ɡrɪn/ verb [intransitive] (grinning; grinned) grin (at sb) to give a wide smile (so that you show your teeth) She grinned at me as she came into the room. Mo was grinning from ear to ear. ▶ uśmiechać się szeroko wyszczerzać zęby w uśmiechu
mleć, szlifować
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grind, grind
2 to make sth sharp or smooth by rubbing it on a rough hard surface to grind a knife on a stone ▶ ostrzyć szlifować
grind1 /ɡraɪnd/ [t] (past tense, past participle ground /ɡraʊnd; US /) 1grind sth (down/up); grind sth (to/into sth) to press and break sth into very small pieces or into a powder Wheat is ground into flour. ground pepper pieprz mielony ▶ mleć
wciskać, wcierać
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4 to rub sth together or make sth rub together, often producing an unpleasant noise Some people grind their teeth (zgrzytają zębami) while they’re asleep. He ground the gears in his hurry to drive away from the house. ▶ zgrzytać
3grind sth in/into sth to press or rub sth into a surface He ground his cigarette into the ashtray. ▶ wciskać wcierać
szlifierka, młynek
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grinder, grinder
grinder /ˈɡraɪndə(r); US / noun [countable] a machine for grinding a coffee grinder ▶ młynek szlifierka
uchwyt, uścisk
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You need tyres that give a good grip (które dobrze trzymają się szosy). The teacher kept a firm grip on the class. ▶ uchwyt uścisk
grip1 /ɡrɪp/ noun 1 [sing.] a grip (on sb/sth) a firm hold (on sb/sth) I relaxed my grip and he ran away. You need to get a firm grip on the tennis racket. The climber slipped and lost her grip. • (figurative)
opanowanie czegoś
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2[sing.] a grip (on sth) an understanding of sth You need to keep a good grip on reality in this job. ▶ opanowanie (czegoś) 3 [countable] the person whose job it is to move the cameras while a film is being made ▶ pomocni-k/ca kamerzysty
ściskać, opanowywać
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2 to interest sb very much; to hold sb’s attention The story really gripped my imagination. The book grips you from start to finish. ▶ zawładnąć (umysłem, wyobraźnią) opanowywać
grip2 /ɡrɪp; US / verb [intransitive, transitive] (gripping; gripped) 1 to hold sb/sth tightly She gripped my arm in fear. ▶ ściskać chwytać
pasjonujący, trzymający w napięciu
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gripping /ˈɡrɪpɪŋ; US / adj. exciting; holding your attention a gripping film/book ▶ trzymający w napięciu pasjonujący
przerażający, makabryczny
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grisly /ˈɡrɪzli; US / adj. (grislier; grisliest) extremely unpleasant and frightening and usually connected with death and violence The detective stared at the grisly remains of the bodies. a grisly crime/death/murder ▶ przerażający makabryczny
chrząstka w pokarmie
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gristle /ˈɡrɪsl; US / noun [uncountable] a hard substance in a piece of meat that is unpleasant to eat a lump of gristle ▶ chrząstka □ gristly /; US / adj. ▶ chrząstkowaty łykowaty
kamyki, ziarnka żwiru
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2(informal) courage; determination that makes it possible for sb to continue doing sth difficult or unpleasant ▶ odwaga determinacja charakter
grit1 /ɡrɪt; US / noun [uncountable] 1 small pieces of stone or sand I’ve got some grit/a piece of grit in my shoe. ▶ kamyki ziarnka żwiru ⇨ look at gravel
posypywać żwirem
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grit2 /ɡrɪt; US / verb [transitive] (gritting; gritted) to spread small pieces of stone and sand on a road that is covered with ice The roads are gritted in icy weather. ▶ posypywać żwirem
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3 showing sth unpleasant as it really is a gritty description of urban violence gritty realism ▶ ostry konkretny
gritty adj. 1 containing or like grit a layer of gritty dust ▶ żwirowaty 2 showing the courage and determination to continue doing sth difficult or unpleasant gritty determination a gritty performance from the British player ▶ z zacięciem
jęczeć, jęk
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□ groan noun [countable] She fell to the floor with a groan. ▶ jęk
groan /ɡrəʊn; US / verb [i] groan (at/with sth) to make a deep sad sound because you are in pain, or to show that you are unhappy about sth He groaned with pain. The audience groaned at his terrible jokes. ▶ jęczeć
sprzedawca w sklepie spożywczym
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2 (the grocer’s) [sing.] a shop that sells food and other things for the home ▶ sklep spożywczy
grocer /ˈɡrəʊsə(r); US / noun 1 [countable] a person who has a shop that sells food and other things for the home ▶ sprzedawca w sklepie spożywczym ⇨ look at greengrocer
sklep spożywczy
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2(groceries) [pl.] food and other goods sold by agrocer or at a supermarket Can you help me unload the groceries from the car, please? ▶ artykuły spożywcze
grocery /ˈɡrəʊsəri; US / noun (pl. groceries) 1(US usually ˈgrocery store) [countable] a shop that sells food and other things used in the home. In American English ‘ grocery store’ is often used to mean ‘ supermarket’. ▶ sklep spożywczy
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groin /ɡrɔɪn; US / noun [countable] the front part of your body where it joins your legs ▶ pachwina
obrządzać konia, szczotkować kota
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2[usually passive] groom sb (for/as sth) to choose and prepare sb for a particular career or job He is clearly being groomed for the top job. ▶ przygotowywać kogoś do objęcia stanowiska
groom1 /ɡru: m; US / verb [transitive] 1 to clean or look after an animal by brushing, etc. to groom a horse/dog/cat ▶ obrządzać (konia) szczotkować (np. psa/kota)
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groom2 /ɡru: m; US / noun [countable] 1 a person who looks after horses, especially by cleaning and brushing them ▶ stajenny
rowek, wyżłobienie
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groove, groove
groove /ɡru: v; US / noun [countable] a long deep line that is cut in the surface of sth ▶ rowek wyżłobienie
macać, szukać po omacku
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grope, grope
2[transitive] (informal) to touch sb sexually, especially when they do not want you to ▶ macać
grope /ɡrəʊp / verb 1 [i] grope (about/around) (for sth) to search for sth or find your way using your hands because you cannot see He groped around for the light switch. I groped my way to the cupboard to look for a torch. ▶ szukać po omacku
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2[only before a noun] (formal) very great or serious There is gross inequality between the rich and the poor. gross indecency/negligence/misconduct ▶ rażący skandaliczny 3 very rude and unpleasant His behaviour was really gross. ▶ grubiański
gross1 /ɡrəʊs; US / adj. 1 [only before a noun] being the total amount before anything is taken away gross income ▶ brutto przed potrąceniem
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grotesque /ɡrəʊˈtesk; US / adj. strange or ugly in a way that is not natural ▶ groteskowy
ziemia, gleba
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2[uncountable] an area or type of soil solid/marshy/stony ground ▶ gleba ziemia
ground1 /ɡraʊnd / noun ⇨ 1(the ground) [sing.] the solid surface of the earth We sat on the ground to eat our picnic. He slipped off the ladder and fell to the ground. waste ground nieużytki ▶ grunt ziemia
podwórko, boisko, teren
ground Earth to nazwa naszej planety. Land to ląd: The sailors sighted land. • The astronauts returned to Earth. Ziemia, którą się kupuje lub sprzedaje, to również land: The price of land in Tokyo is extremely high.
Ziemia, w której rosną rośliny, to earth lub soil. Na dworze, powierzchnia ziemi nazywa się the ground. Wewnątrz budynku, podłoga nazywa się the floor: Don’t sit on the ground. You’ll get wet. • Don’t sit on the floor. I’ll get another chair.
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5[uncountable] an area of interest, study, discussion, etc. The lecture went over the same old ground/covered a lot of new ground. to be on dangerous ground looking for some common ground between the two sides ▶ obszar (zagadnień) materiał (w nauce)
3[countable] a piece of land that is used for a particular purpose a sports ground a playground ▶ podwórko boisko plac (np. zabaw) 4(grounds) [pl.] land or gardens surrounding a large building the grounds of the palace ▶ teren park
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2[usually passive] to punish a child by not allowing them to go out with friends for a period of time Emma’s grounded for a whole week. ▶ zabronić dziecku wychodzenia z kolegami itp.
ground2 /ɡraʊnd; US / verb [transitive] 1[usually passive] to force an aircraft, etc. to stay on the ground to be grounded by fog ▶ unieruchamiać uziemiać
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groundbreaking /ˈɡraʊndbreɪkɪŋ; US / adj. [only before a noun] making new discoveries; using new methods a groundbreaking piece of research ▶ przełomowy
załoga naziemna
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ground crew
ˈground crew (also ˈground staff) noun [countable, uncountable] the people in an airport whose job it is to look after an aircraft while it is on the ground ▶ załoga naziemna
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ground floor
ˌground ˈfloor (US ˌfirst ˈfloor) noun [countable] the floor of a building that is at ground level a ground-floor flat mieszkanie na parterze ▶ parter ⇨ note at floor
podstawa, wprowadzenie
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grounding /ˈɡraʊndɪŋ; US / noun [sing.] a grounding (in sth) the teaching of the basic facts or principles of a subject This book provides a good grounding in grammar. ▶ podstawa wprowadzenie
bezpodstawny, gołosłowny
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groundless /ˈɡraʊndləs; US / adj. having no reason or cause Our fears were groundless. ▶ bezpodstawny gołosłowny □ groundlessly /; US / ▶ bezpodstawnie gołosłownie
podstawy, zasady
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ground rule
2 (US) a rule adapted for a particular playing field ▶ (baseball) zmodyfikowane reguły w zależności od boiska
ˈground rule noun [countable] 1[usually pl.] a basic principle The new code of conduct lays down the ground rules for management-union relations. ▶ podstawy zasady
praca przygotowawcza
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ground work
groundwork /ˈɡraʊndwɜ: k; US / noun [uncountable] work that is done in preparation for further work or study ▶ praca przygotowawcza przygotowanie podwaliny
grupa, ugrupowanie
Group w lp może występować z czasownikiem w lp albo lm: Our discussion group is/are meeting this week. Mając na myśli poszczególnych członków grupy na ogół używa się czasownika w lm: A group of us are planning to meet for lunch.
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group, group
people start smoking because of pressure from their peer group (w wyniku presji rówieśników people of many different social groups a pressure group grupa nacisku Which blood group do you belong to? Divide the class into groups. ▶ grupa ugrupowanie
group1 /ɡru: p; US / noun [c] a number of people or things that are together in the same place or that are connected in some way a group of girls/trees/houses Students were standing in groups waiting for their exam results. He is in the 40-50 age group.
grupować, segregować
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group, segregate
group2 /ɡru: p; US / verb [intransitive, transitive] group (sb/sth) (around/round sb/sth); group (sb/sth) (together) to put sb/sth or to form into one or more groups Group these words according to their meaning. ▶ grupować segregować
gaj, zagajnik
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grove, grove
grove /ɡrəʊv; US / noun [countable] a small group of trees, especially of one particular type an olive grove ▶ gaj zagajnik
płaszczyć się, pełzać przed kimś
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to grovel
I had to grovel to the receptionist to get an appointment with the doctor. to grovel for forgiveness ▶ płaszczyć się (przed kimś) pełzać przed kimś
grovel /ˈɡrɒvl; US / verb [intransitive] (grovelling; grovelled, US groveling; groveled) 1grovel (to sb) (for sth) to try too hard to please sb who is more important than you or who can give you sth that you want
czołgać się, chodzić na czworaka
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2grovel (around/about) (for sth) to move around on your hands and knees (usually when you are looking for sth) ▶ czołgać się chodzić na czworakach □ grovelling /; US / adj. I wrote a grovelling letter to my bank manager. ▶ płaszczący się
rosnąć, wzrastać
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You must invest if you want your business to grow. Plants grow from seeds. Kittens soon grow into cats. ▶ rosnąć wzrastać
grow /ɡrəʊ; US / verb (past tense grew /ɡru:; US /, past participle grown /ɡrəʊn; US /) 1[intransitive] grow (in sth) to increase in size or number; to develop into an adult form a growing child She’s growing in confidence all the time.
rosnąć, uprawiać
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2[intransitive, transitive] (used about plants) to exist and develop in a particular place; to make plants grow by giving them water, etc. Palm trees don’t grow in cold climates. We grow vegetables in our garden. ▶ rosnąć uprawiać
zapuszczać, stawać się
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4[intransitive] to gradually change from one state to another; to become It began to grow dark. The teacher was growing more and more impatient. to grow older starzeć się to grow wiser mądrzeć to grow taller/bigger ▶ stawać się
3[transitive] to allow your hair or nails to grow Claire’s growing her hair long. to grow a beard/moustache ▶ zapuszczać (np. włosy)
narastający, rosnący
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growing, growing
growing /ˈɡrəʊɪŋ; US / adj. [only before a noun] increasing A growing number of people are becoming vegetarian these days. ▶ narastający rosnący
warczeć, ryczeć
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growl, roar
growl /ɡraʊl; US / verb [intransitive] growl (at sb/sth) (used about dogs and other animals) to make a low noise in the throat to show anger or to give a warning ▶ warczeć ryczeć □ growl noun [countable] ▶ warczenie ryk
dojrzały, dorosły
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ˌgrown-ˈup1 adj. physically or mentally adult She’s very grown-up for her age. He must be at least 45 – he’s got a grown-up daughter. ▶ dorosły dojrzały
grown2 /ɡrəʊn; US / adj. [only before a noun] physically an adult a fully-grown elephant I’ve never seen a grown man cry before. ▶ dorosły dojrzały
wzrost, rozwój
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growth, development
2[uncountable, sing.] an increase (in sth) population growth There has been a sudden growth in the government’s popularity. ▶ wzrost przyrost
growth /ɡrəʊɵ; US / noun ⇨ POSŁUCHAJ NAGRAŃ PRZYKŁADÓW 1[uncountable] the process of growing and developing A good diet is very important for children’s growth. a growth industry (szybko) rozwijający się przemysł ▶ wzrost rozwój
przyrost, narośl, nowotwór
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3[countable] a lump caused by a disease that grows in a person’s or an animal’s body a cancerous growth ▶ narośl nowotwór 4[uncountable] something that has grown several days’ growth (kilkudniowy zarost) of beard ▶ przyrost
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grub /ɡrʌb; US / noun 1 [countable] the first form that an insect takes when it comes out of the egg. Grubs are short, fat and white. ▶ larwa 2[uncountable] (informal) food I’m starving – I need some grub. ▶ żarcie
uraza, żal
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grudge2 /ɡrʌdʒ; US / verb [transitive] grudge sb sth; grudge doing sth to be unhappy that sb has sth or that you have to do sth I don’t grudge him his success – he deserves it. I grudge having to pay so much tax. ▶ żałować czegoś komuś
/ɡrʌdʒ/ [c] a grudge (against sb) unfriendly feelings towards sb, because you are angry about what has happened in the past to bear a grudge against somebody mieć komuś coś za złe That’s all in the past – I don’t hold any grudges now. ▶ uraza żal
niechętny, skąpy
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grudging /ˈɡrʌdʒɪŋ; US / adj. given or done although you do not want to grudging thanks ▶ niechętny skąpy □ grudgingly /; US / adv. ▶ niechętnie skąpo
wyczerpujący, męczący
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gruelling (US grueling) /ˈɡru:əlɪŋ; US / adj. very tiring and long a gruelling nine-hour march ▶ wyczerpujący męczący
gburowaty, opryskliwy
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—gruffness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ gburowatość burkliwość opryskliwość
gruff /ɡrʌf; US / adj. (used about a person or a voice) rough and unfriendly ▶ gburowaty opryskliwy burkliwy □ gruffly /; US / adv. ▶ gburowato burkliwie opryskliwie
narzekać, utyskiwać
Grumble, moan lub whinge używa się, narzekając na coś, co nie spełnia naszych oczekiwań. Natomiast skarżąc się komuś lub wnosząc oficjalną skargę w celu zmiany sytuacji na lepsze, używa się czasownika complain
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□ grumble noun [countable] I’m tired of listening to your grumbles. ▶ narzekanie utyskiwanie
grumble /ˈɡrʌmbl; US / verb [intransitive] to complain in a bad-tempered way; to keep saying that you do not like sth The students were always grumbling about the standard of the food. ▶ narzekać utyskiwać
zły, naburmuszony
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□ grumpily /; US / adv. ▶ mrukliwie szorstko —grumpiness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ naburmuszenie nabzdyczenie mrukliwość
grumpy /ˈɡrʌmpi; US / adj. (grumpier; grumpiest) (informal) bad-tempered Why is Jenny so grumpy today? I was in a grumpy mood this morning, but I’m feeling quite cheerful now. ▶ zły naburmuszony nabzdyczony
chrząkać, odmruknąć
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grunt, grunt
□ grunt noun [countable] ▶ chrząknięcie mruknięcie
grunt /ɡrʌnt; US / verb [i, t] to make a short low sound in the throat. People grunt when they do not like sth or are not interested and do not want to talk I tried to find out her opinion but she just grunted. ▶ chrząkać odmruknąć
poręczenie, gwarancja
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2 a written promise by a company that it will repair or replace a product if it breaks in a certain period of time The watch comes with a year’s guarantee. Is the computer still under guarantee? (na gwarancji) ▶ gwarancja ⇨ look at warranty
guarantee1 /ˌɡærənˈti:; US / noun [countable, uncountable] 1 a firm promise that sth will be done or that sth will happen The refugees are demanding guarantees about their safety before they return home. ▶ poręczenie gwarancja
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3 something that makes sth else certain to happen If you don’t have a reservation there’s no guarantee that you’ll get a seat on the train. ▶ gwarancja
gwarantować, ręczyć
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2 to give a written promise to repair or replace a product if anything is wrong with it This washing machine is guaranteed for three years ▶ gwarantować 3 to make sth certain Tonight’s win guarantees the team a place in the final. ▶ gwarantować
/ˌɡærənˈti:/ [t] 1 to promise that sth will be done or will happen They have guaranteed delivery within one week. I can guarantee that you will have a good time. You can guarantee that if you’re in a hurry, the bus will be late. ▶ gwarantować ręczyć
strażnik, konwojent
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guard, escort
2[uncountable] the state of being ready to prevent attack or danger Soldiers keep guard at the gate. Who is on guard? The prisoner arrived under armed guard. ▶ straż warta konwój
guard1 /ɡɑ: d; US / noun 1 [countable] a person who protects a place or people, or who stops prisoners from escaping The prisoner slipped past the guards on the gate and escaped. a security guard ▶ strażnik konwojent ochraniarz
warta, straż
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4[countable] [in compounds] something that covers sth dangerous or protects sth a fireguard krata ochronna przed kominkiem a mudguard błotnik Make sure the guard is in place before operating the machine. ▶ ochraniacz
3[sing., with sing. or pl. verb] The president always travels with an armed guard. The guard is/are being inspected today. a guard of honour warta honorowa the changing of the guard (zmiana warty) at Buckingham Palace ▶ warta straż
konduktor kolejowy
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6[uncountable] a position that you take to defend yourself, especially in sports such as boxing: (figurative) She doesn’t trust journalists, and never lets her guard drop (zawsze ma się na baczności) during interviews. ▶ czujność
5(US conductor) [countable] a person who is in charge of a train but does not drive it ▶ konduktor kierownik pociągu
strzec, chronić
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guard, protect
2 to be ready to stop prisoners from escaping The prisoner was closely guarded on the way to court. ▶ strzec pilnować
guard2 /ɡɑ: d; US / verb [transitive] 1 to keep sb/sth safe from other people; protect The building was guarded by men with dogs. soldiers guarding the President • (figurative) a closely guarded secret ▶ strzec chronić zabezpieczać
stróż, obrońca, opiekun
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2 a person who is legally responsible for the care of another person, especially of a child whose parents are dead ▶ opiekun/ka
guardian /ˈɡɑ: diən; US / noun [countable] 1 a person or institution that guards or protects sth The police are the guardians of law and order. ▶ stróż obrońca
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guerrilla (also guerilla) /ɡəˈrɪlə; US / noun [countable] a member of a small military group who are not part of an official army and who make surprise attacks on the enemy guerrilla warfare partyzantka ▶ partyzant/ka
zgadywać, domyślać się
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to guess, guess
2[intransitive, transitive] to guess correctly; to give the correct answer when you are not sure about it Can you guess my age? You’ll never guess what Adam just told me! Did I guess right? ▶ zgadywać
guess1 /ɡes;/ verb 1[i, t] guess (at sth) to try and give an answer or make a judgement about sth I’d guess that he’s about 45. If you’re not sure of an answer, guess. We can only guess at her reasons for leaving. ▶ zgadywać domyślać się
przypuszczać, domyślać się
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4[transitive] (used to show that you are going to say sth surprising or exciting) Guess what! (Nie uwierzysz!) I’m getting married! Guess who I just saw!
3[transitive] (especially US, informal) to imagine that sth is probably true or likely; to suppose I guess you’re tired after your long journey. We ought to leave soon, I guess. ▶ przypuszczać domyślać się
domniemanie, przypuszczenie
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presumption, guess
My guess is that they’ve been delayed by the traffic. I don’t know how far it is, but at a guessI’d say about 50 miles. I’d say it’ll take about four hours, but that’s just a rough guess (ale to tylko przypuszczenie). ▶ domniemanie przypuszczenie
guess2 /ɡes; US / noun [countable] an effort you make to imagine a possible answer or give an opinion when you cannot be sure if you are right If you don’t know the answer, then have a guess (zgadnij)!
szacunkowe obliczenie
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guesstimate (also guestimate) /ˈɡestɪmət; US / noun [countable] (informal) an attempt to calculate sth that is based more on guessing than on information ▶ szacunkowe obliczenie
zgadywanie, domysły
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guesswork /ˈɡeswɜ: k; US / noun [uncountable] an act of guessing I arrived at the answer by pure guesswork. ▶ zgadywanie domysły
gość, gość hotelowy
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guest, hotel guest
2 a person who is staying at a hotel, etc. This hotel has accommodation for 500 guests. ▶ gość hotelowy
guest /ɡest; US / noun [countable] 1 a person who is invited to a place or to a special event wedding guests I went to the dance as Julie’s guest. We have a mystery guest on tonight’s show. Who is the guest speaker at the conference? ▶ gość
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ˈguest house noun [countable] a small hotel, sometimes in a private house ▶ pensjonat
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guidance /ˈɡaɪdns; US / noun [uncountable] guidance (on sth) help or advice Activities take place under the guidance of an expert tutor. The centre offers guidance for unemployed people on how to find work. ▶ porada poradnictwo
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2(also guidebook /ˈɡaɪdbʊk; US /) a book that gives information about a place to tourists or people who are travelling The guide says that it was built 500 years ago. ▶ przewodnik
guide1 /ɡaɪd; US / noun [countable] 1 a book, magazine, etc. that gives information or help on a subject A Guide to Family Health Your Guide to Using the Internet Have we got a TV guide (program telewizyjny) for this week? ▶ przewodnik
przewodnik, wskazówka
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guide, tip
4 something that helps you to judge or plan sth As a rough guide, use (ogólna wskazówka jest taka, aby używać) twice as much water as rice. ▶ wskazówka
3 a person who shows tourists or people who are travelling where to go She works as a tour guide in Venice. We found a guide who knew the mountains well. ▶ przewodni-k/czka
proawdzić, nakierowywać
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guide, guide
2 to have an influence on sb/sth I was guided by your advice. ▶ kierować
guide2 /ɡaɪd/ [t] 1 to help a person or a group of people to find the way to a place He guided us through the busy streets to our hotel. We were guided around the museum by a young student. ▶ prowadzić nakierowywać
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4 to carefully move sb/sth or to help sb/sth to move in a particular direction A crane lifted the piano and two men carefully guided it through the window. The teacher guided my hand as he showed me how to use a mouse. ▶ kierować prowadzić
3 to help sb deal with sth difficult or complicated The manual will guide you through every step of the procedure. ▶ (po)prowadzić
z przewodnikiem
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guided /ˈɡaɪdɪd; US / adj. led by a guide a guided tour/walk ▶ z przewodnikiem
pocisk kierowany
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guided missile
ˌguided ˈmissile noun [countable] a missile that can be guided to its destination by electronic devices while in flight ▶ pocisk kierowany
pies przewodnik
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guide dog
ˈguide dog noun [countable] a dog trained to guide a person who is unable to see ▶ pies przewodnik
wytyczna, zalecenie
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guideline, recommendation
2 something that can be used to help you make a decision or form an opinion These figures are a useful guideline when buying a house. ▶ (przen.) wskazówka
guideline /ˈɡaɪdlaɪn; US / noun [countable] 1[usually pl.] official advice or rules on how to do sth The government has issued new guidelines on food safety. ▶ wytyczna zalecenie wskazówka
stowarzyszenie, cech
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association, guilds
guild /ɡɪld; US / noun [countable, with sing. or pl. verb] an organization of people who do the same job or who have the same interests or aims the Screen Actors’ Guild ▶ stowarzyszenie cech
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guillotine /ˈɡɪləti: n / noun [countable] 1 a machine that was used in France in the past for cutting people’s heads off ▶ gilotyna 2 a machine used for cutting paper ▶ gilotyna □ guillotine verb [transitive] ▶ ścinać na gilotynie gilotynować
wina, przekroczenie prawa
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guilt, breaking the law
2 the fact of having broken a law We took his refusal to answer questions as an admission of guilt. His guilt was not proved (nie udowodniono mu winy) and so he went free. ▶ przekroczenie prawa
guilt /ɡɪlt/ [u] 1guilt (about/at sth) the feelings that you have when you know that you have done sth bad I sometimes feel guilt about not spending more time with my children. He had a strong sense of guilt at not having helped his friend. ▶ wina
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3 the responsibility for doing sth wrong or for sth bad that has happened It’s difficult to say whether the guilt lies with the parents or the children. ▶ wina
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2 guilty (of sth) having broken a law; being responsible for doing sth wrong She pleaded (not) guilty to the crime. to be guilty of murder The jury found him guilty of fraud. ▶ winny  OPPOSITE  innocent □ guiltily adv. ▶ z poczuciem winy
/ˈɡɪlti/ (guiltier; guiltiest) 1guilty (about sth) having an unpleasant feeling because you have done sth bad I feel really guilty about lying to Sam. a guilty conscience nieczyste sumienie Why has Mike got a guilty look on his face? ▶ winny
świnka morska
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2 a person who is used in an experiment I volunteered to act as a guinea pig in their research into dreams. ▶ królik doświadczalny
guinea pig /ˈɡɪni pɪɡ; US / noun [countable] 1 a small animal with no tail that is often kept as a pet ▶ świnka morska ⇨ note at pet
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His speech presented racist ideas under the guise of (pod płaszczykiem) nationalism. ▶ pozór
guise /ɡaɪz/ noun [countable] a way in which sb/sth appears, which is often different from usual or hides the truth The President was at the meeting in his guise as (jako) chairman of the charity.
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a guitar
guitar /ɡɪˈtɑ:(r); US / noun [countable] a type of musical instrument with strings that you play with your fingers or with a plectrum Do you play acoustic or electric guitar? Can you play the guitar? ▶ gitara
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guitarist /ɡɪˈtɑ: rɪst; US / noun [countable] a person who plays the guitar ▶ gitarzyst(k)a
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3[countable] an important or serious difference between people in the way they live, think or feel the gulf between rich and poor ▶ przepaść
gulf /ɡʌlf; US / noun 1 [countable] a part of the sea that is almost surrounded by land the Gulf of Mexico ▶ zatoka 2(the Gulf) [sing.] the Persian Gulf the oil-producing Gulf states ▶ Zatoka Perska
mewa, rybitwa
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gull /ɡʌl; US / (also seagull /ˈsi:ɡʌl; US /) noun [countable] a white or grey bird that makes a loud noise and lives near the sea ▶ mewa rybitwa
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oesophagus (gullet)
gullet /ˈɡʌlɪt; US / noun [countable] the tube through which food pases from your mouth to your stomach ▶ przełyk Bardziej formalnym słowem jest oesophagus.
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ˈgum tree noun [countable] a eucalyptus tree ▶ eukaliptus
gum /ɡʌm; US / noun 1 [countable] either of the firm pink parts of your mouth that hold your teeth gum disease ▶ dziąsło 2[uncountable] a substance that you use to stick things together (especially pieces of paper) ▶ klej guma arabska
pistolet, broń palna
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gun, firearms
2 a tool that uses pressure to send out a substance or an object a grease gun towotnica a staple gun rodzaj zszywacza ▶ rodzaj narzędzia (wyrzucającego pod ciśnieniem płyn/rzecz)
gun1 /ɡʌn; US / noun [countable] ⇨ POSŁUCHAJ NAGRAŃ PRZYKŁADÓW 1 a weapon that is used for shooting The robber held a gun to the bank manager’s head. ▶ broń palna pistolet
wystrzał, strzelanie
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gunfire /ˈɡʌnfaɪə(r); US / noun [uncountable] the repeated firing of guns We could hear gunfire. ▶ wystrzał strzelanie
uzbrojony bandyta
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gunman /ˈɡʌnmən; US / noun [countable] (pl. -men /-mən; US /) a man who uses a gun to steal from or kill people ▶ uzbrojony bandyta
proch strzelniczy
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gunpowder /ˈɡʌnpaʊdə(r); US / noun [uncountable] a powder that can explode and is used in guns, etc. ▶ proch strzelniczy
wystrzał, strzał
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gunshot /ˈɡʌnʃɒt; US / noun [countable] the firing of a gun or the sound that it makes He received gunshot wounds to the legs. I heard a gunshot and lay on the ground. ▶ wystrzał strzał
bulgotać, gulgotać
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gurgle, gurgling
□ gurgle noun [countable] ▶ gulgot bulgot gaworzenie
gurgle /ˈɡɜ:ɡl; US / verb [intransitive] 1 to make a sound like water flowing quickly through a narrow space a gurgling stream ▶ gulgotać bulgotać 2 if a baby gurgles, it makes a noise in its throat because it is happy ▶ gaworzyć
guru, mistrz
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guru, master
guru /ˈɡʊru:; US / noun [countable] 1 a spiritual leader or teacher in the Hindu religion ▶ guru 2 a person whose opinions you admire and respect, and whose ideas you follow a management/fashion guru ▶ mistrz guru mentor
tryskać, chlustać
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2[transitive] (used about a container/vehicle, etc.) to produce large amounts of a liquid The broken pipe was gushing water all over the road. ▶ wyrzucać/wylewać potoki czegoś
gush /ɡʌʃ; US / verb 1 [intransitive] gush (out of/from/into sth); gush out/in (used about a liquid) to flow out suddenly and in great quantities Blood gushed from the wound. I turned the tap on and water gushed out. ▶ tryskać chlustać
tryśnięcie, chlust
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□ gush noun [countable] a sudden gush of water I felt a gush of emotion. ▶ tryśnięcie chlust potok
poryw wiatru
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□ gust verb [intransitive] The wind was gusting in through the open window. ▶ wiać porywiście
gust /ɡʌst; US / noun [countable] a sudden strong wind There will be gusts of wind of up to 80 miles per hour. ▶ poryw wiatru podmuch
kiszka, jelito
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intestine, gut
2 (guts) [pl.] the organs in and around the stomach, especially of an animal I took the guts out of the fish and gave them to the cat. I’ve got a pain in my guts. ▶ wnętrzności flaki
gut1 /ɡʌt; US / noun 1 [countable] the tube in the body that food passes through when it leaves the stomach ▶ kiszka jelito
kałdun, odwaga
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4(guts) [pl.] (informal) courage and determination It takes guts to admit that you are wrong. I don’t have the guts to tell my boss what he’s doing wrong. ▶ odwaga śmiałość
3 [countable] a person’s fat stomach I’m getting a bit of a gut – I should exercise more. ▶ kałdun brzuszysko
patroszyć, sprawiać
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gut2 /ɡʌt; US / verb [transitive] (gutting; gutted) 1 to destroy the inside of a building The warehouse was gutted by fire. ▶ zniszczyć wnętrze budynku 2 to remove the organs from inside an animal, fish, etc. ▶ patroszyć sprawiać
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gut3 /ɡʌt; US / adj. [only before a noun] based on emotion or feeling rather than on reason a gut feeling/reaction ▶ odruchowy
rynna, ściek, rynsztok
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gutter, sewage, gutter
2 a lower part at the edge of a road along which the water flows away when it rains ▶ ściek rynsztok 3 the very lowest level of society She rose from the gutter to become a great star. ▶ rynsztok
gutter /ˈɡʌtə(r); US / noun [countable] 1 a long piece of metal or plastic with a curved bottom that is fixed to the edge of a roof to carry away the water when it rains ▶ rynna
chłopak, facet
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boy, guy
guy /ɡaɪ; US / noun 1 [countable] (informal) a man or a boy He’s a nice guy. ▶ facet chłop/ak
sala, siłownia
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hall, gym
Is there a basketball court in your school gym? I work out at the gym twice a week. ▶ sala gimnastyczna siłownia
gym /dʒɪm; US / noun 1 (also formal gymnasium /dʒɪmˈneɪziəm; US / (pl. gymnasiums or gymnasia /-zɪə; US /) [countable] a large room or a building with equipment for doing physical exercise
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gymnastics /dʒɪmˈnæstɪks; US / (also gym) noun [uncountable] physical exercises that are done inside a building, often using special equipment such as bars and ropes I did gymnastics at school. She won a gold medal in gymnastics. ▶ gimnastyka
gymnast /ˈdʒɪmnæst; US / noun [countable] a person who does gymnastics ▶ gimnasty-k/czka
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□ gynaecological (US gynecological) /ˌɡaɪnəkəˈlɒdʒɪkl; US / adj. ▶ ginekologiczny —gynaecologist (US gynecologist) /ˌɡaɪnəˈkɒlədʒɪst; US / noun [countable] ▶ ginekolog
gynaecology (US gynecology) /ˌɡaɪnəˈkɒlədʒi; US / noun [uncountable] the study and treatment of the diseases and medical problems of women ▶ ginekologia
Rom, cygan
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Gypsy (also Gipsy) /ˈdʒɪpsi; US / noun [countable] (pl. Gypsies) a member of a race of people who traditionally spend their lives travelling around from place to place, living in caravans ▶ Rom/ka Cygan/ka

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