lesson 11 PERFECT

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término English
definición English

simple Present Perfect
I have spent...
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SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE
I have spent...

I have been happily married since I met this man.
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With HOW LONG/FOR/SINCE for verbs normally used in continuous forms: BE, HAVE, KNOW, LIKE.
I have been happily married since I met this man.

I have spent my parents' savings.
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For COMPLETED ACTIONS when no time is given.
I have spent my parents' savings.

I have not ever been to Miami.
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With EVER/ALREADY/YET/JUST
I have not ever been to Miami.

I have had six beers.
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When you say HOW MANY or HOW MANY TIMES
I have had six beers.

It's the best feeling I've ever had in my whole life.
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with SUPERLATIVES.
It's the best feeling I've ever had in my whole life.

Present Perfect continuous
I have been cheating... act dishonestly or unfairly in order to gain an advantage. "she always cheats at cards"
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SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb +ing)
I have been cheating...

I have been cheating on my wife since she started snoring.
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For continuous actions, specially for questions with HOW LONG and answers with FOR/SINCE.
I have been cheating on my wife since she started snoring.

I have been spending time with Susan today.
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For CONTINUOUS ACTIONS recently finished.
I have been spending time with Susan today.

simple Present Perfect question
Suzie, have you lost your mind?
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HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE
Have you lost...

simple Present Perfect negative
dear, I haven't forgotten how much I love you.
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SUBJECT + HAVEN'T/HASN'T + PAST PARTICIPLE
I haven't forgotten...

Present Perfect continuous question
Have you been eating chocolate, Honey?
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HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
Have you been eating?

Present Perfect continuous negative
No, I haven't been eating anything, Mommy.
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SUBJECT + HAVEN'T/HASN'T + BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb +ing)
I haven't been eating...

Present Perfect or Simple Past?
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I always thought dinosaurs were just science fiction. I have believed in the existence of dinosaurs since I met you.

the SIMPLE PAST
I always thought dinosaurs were just science fiction (she doesn't think so anymore)
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is usually used for finished actions with a past time expression (yesterday, ago, last week...)
I always thought dinosaurs were just science fiction (she doesn't think so anymore)

The PRESENT PERFECT
I have believed in the existence of dinosaurs since I met you. (he still believes they exist.)
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is usually used if an action started in the past and is still going on now.
I have believed in the existence of dinosaurs since I met you. (he still believes they exist.)

simple Past Perfect
I had fallen...
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SUBJECT + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE
I had fallen...

I had never fallen off my bike before.
Adverbs describing time (already, just, never, ever, before) are commonly used.
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To talk about an ACTION that happened BEFORE ANOTHER EVENT in the past
I had never fallen off my bike before.

She had never fallen off her bike before the time when she broke her leg.
She whispered what they had said.
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Also used in REPORTED SPEECH
She told me that he had told her that Elisa is pregnant. Oh my God!

Past Perfect continuous
She had been dancing...
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SUBJECT + HAD BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
She had been dancing...

She had been dancing until her back said "stop".
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To talk about AN ACTION that started in the past and CONTINUED UP UNTIL ANOTHER EVENT in the past
She had been dancing until her back said "stop".

simple Past Perfect question
Had you ever been anywhere that had so many people before you came to the city?
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HAD + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE
Had you been...?

simple Past Perfect negative
No, I hadn't. And I hadn't ever felt this alone, either.
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SUBJECT + HADN'T + PAST PARTICIPLE
I hadn't felt...

Past Perfect continuous question
Had you been stealing from your clients before the company went bankrupt?
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HAD + SUBJECT + BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)

Past Perfect continuous negative
I hadn't been stealing. I had been investing in myself.
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SUBJECT + HADN'T + BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
I hadn't been stealing...

simple Future Perfect
By next spring, maybe I'll have succeeded in making a friend.
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SUBJECT + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
I will have succeeded...

He will have succeeded in making a friend by the time he's no longer afraid of people.
When he makes a friend, he will have overcome his fear of people.
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To show that an ACTION will be COMPLETED BY A CERTAIN TIME in the future.

Future Perfect continuous
I will have been working...
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SUBJECT + WILL HAVE BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
I will have been working...

I'll have been working for 16 hours when I finish my shift.
She will have been working for 16 hours and she will still have to prepare dinner for her husband.
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To show how long an ACTIVITY will be taking place BEFORE ANOTHER in the future.
I'll have been working for 16 hours when I finish my shift.

simple Future Perfect question
Will I have gotten my self-confidence back by next Halloween?
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WILL + SUBJECT + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
Will I have gotten...?

simple Future Perfect negative
I don't know. But what I do know is you won't have forgiven your mother.
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SUBJECT + WON'T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
You won't have forgiven...

Future Perfect continuous question
How long will I have been trying to learn English after this?
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WILL + SUBJECT + HAVE BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
Will I have been trying...?

Future Perfect continuous negative
3, 4 years...6 years... Oh well, I won't have been wasting my time if I finally do learn.
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SUBJECT + WON'T HAVE BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb+ing)
I won't have been wasting...

All Verb Tenses
Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive tenses.
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PAST; PRESENT; FUTURE
simple; continuous; perfect; perfect continuous

Present Tenses
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Simple Present; Present Continuous; Simple Present Perfect; Present Perfect Continuous

Past Tenses
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Simple Past; Past Continuous; Simple Past Perfect; Past Perfect Continuous

Future Tenses
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Simple Future; Future Continuous; Future Simple Perfect; Future Perfect Continuous

I want cookies.
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PRESENT - SIMPLE PRESENT

The movie starts at 5 p.m.
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FUTURE - SIMPLE PRESENT

I am silly.
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SIMPLE PRESENT

I'm driving right now.
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PRESENT - PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I'm meeting friends tonight.
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FUTURE - PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I'm living in New York.
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PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I have been to Italy.
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PAST - SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT

I have cleaned the room.
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PRESENT- SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT

I have been drinking.
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PAST - PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I have been waiting in line for 2 hours.
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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I played with dolls.
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PAST - SIMPLE PAST

If I lied to you, you would know.
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PRESENT - SIMPLE PAST

If you forgot to bring it, I'd remind you.
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FUTURE - SIMPLE PAST

I was sleeping at 11 a.m.
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PAST - PAST CONTINUOUS

If I wasn't working tomorrow, I would go.
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FUTURE - PAST CONTINUOUS

I had lost some weight.
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PAST - SIMPLE PAST PERFECT

I had been crying all day.
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PAST - PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

If I had been reading, I wouldn't have seen you.
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PRESENT - PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I'll answer the phone.
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PRESENT - SIMPLE FUTURE

I will buy the tickets tomorrow.
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FUTURE - SIMPLE FUTURE

I will be having dinner with friends.
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FUTURE - FUTURE CONTINUOUS

I will have finished.
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FUTURE - FUTURE SIMPLE PERFECT

I will have lived here for five years next week.
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FUTURE SIMPLE PERFECT

I'll have been waiting for 2 hours when you arrive.
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FUTURE - FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Soon, I will have been driving for 12 hours.
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FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


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