Lecture 01: Introduction to Programming Languages

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término English
definición English

What are the main Programming Domains
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Scientific applications, Business applications, Artificial intelligence, Systems programming, Web Software

What are the main characteristics of Scientific applications
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Large numbers of floating point computations; use of arrays

Give an example scientific domain language
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Fortran (Formula Translating System, IBM)

What are the main characteristics of Business applications?
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Produce reports, use decimal numbers and characters

Give an example of a Business applications language.
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COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)

What are the main characteristics of Artificial intelligence domain languages?
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Symbols rather than numbers manipulated; use of linked lists

give an example of an artificial intelligence language
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LISP (LISt Processing)

What are the main characteristics of Systems programming languages
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Need efficiency because of continuous use

Give an example of a Systems programming language
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Give an example of a Systems programming inglés
C

What are the main characteristics of Web Software
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Eclectic collection of languages: markup (e.g., HTML), scripting (e.g., PHP), general-purpose (e.g., Java)

What are the main Language Categories by Uses?
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Machine languages, Assembly languages, High-level languages, System programming languages, Scripting languages, Domain-specific languages

Describe Machine languages
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[1] hardware implemented languages. [2] The set of the instructions of a processor. [3] Machine code is usually written in hexdecimal numbers.

Describe Assembly languages
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[1] machine codes are wrapped with alphanumeric symbols so that the instructions are more readable. [2] They also have labeled storage locations, jump targets and subroutine starting addresses.

Describe High-level languages
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[1] Machine-independent, similar to natural language.[2] Are usually characterised with variables, types, subroutines, functions, constants[3] complex expressions[4] control structures,(conditionals, switches, loops)[5] composite types (arrays, structs)

What does machine independant mean?
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independent of the machine instructions of any particular processors)

Describe System programming languages
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[1] deal with: memory and process management, I/O operations, device drivers, operating systems.

Describe Scripting languages
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[1] used to write programs in system administration [2] analyse / transform large amounts of regular text info [3] act as“glue”between different apps [4] make simple GUI to control an existing app [5] interpreted not compiled [6] Good string processing

Describe Domain-specific languages
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unlike general purpose languages, they are used in highly special-purpose areas only, e.g., PostScript - a language for creating vector graphics for the electronic publishing (Adobe).

What are the major Categories by Paradigms
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Procedural, Functional, Logic

Describe Procedural Paradigm
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[1] A program is built from one or more procedures (subroutines or functions) [2] Central features are variables, assignment statements, and iteration [3] Include languages that support object-oriented programming [4] Include scripting languages

Give some examples of Procedural languages
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C, Java, Perl, JavaScript, Visual BASIC. NET, C++,...

Describe Functional Paradigm
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Main means of making computations is by applying functions to given parameters

Give examples of some Functional languages
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Haskell, LISP, Scheme, ML (MetaLanguage), F#, etc

Describe Logic paradigms
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Rule-based (rules are specified in no particular order)

give an example of logic language
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Prolog

What are the categories when organiseng languages by How Tasks are Specified
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Imperative languages or Declarative languages

Describe imperative languages
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[1] computing tasks are defined as sequences of commands (statements) for the computer to perform. [2] a program in such language tells computer what to do step-by-step (to make the computer change from one state to the next).

Give example of Imperative langauage
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procedural languages

Describe Declarative languages
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[1] programs describe their desired results without explicitly listing commands or steps that must be performed.

give examples of declarative programming languages
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functional and logical programming languages belong to this category.


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