5. 2 real and hypothetical conditionals

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término English
definición English

real situation
real (zero) conditional:
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if + present simple + present simple

real possibility
real (first) conditional:
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if + present simple + will/going to/can/could/may/might/should + infinitive

unreal situation
hypothetical (second) conditional:
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if + past simple + would/could/might/should + infinitive

real (zero) conditional
to talk about a real situation that is always or generally true with a result that always happens
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if + present simple + present simple
if + (conditional clause) + (result clause)

real (first) conditional
to talk about a real possibility in the present or future,
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if + present simple + will/going to/can/could/may/might/should + infinitive
if + (conditional clause) + (result clause)

hypothetical (second) conditional
to talk about a hypothetical or unreal situation in the present or future,
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if + past simple + would/could/might/should + infinitive
if + (conditional clause) + (result clause)

to talk about a real situation that is always or generally true with a result that always happens
If you pay by debit card, you get 5 percent discount.
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use the real (zero) conditional
if + present simple (conditional clause); present simple (result clause)

to talk about a real possibility in the present or future,
If you put in the wrong PIN number, the machine will take your card.
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use the real (first) conditional
if + present simple (conditional clause); will/going to/can/could/may/might/should + infinitive (result clause)

to talk about a hypothetical or unreal situation in the present or future,
If Valerie practised more, she could be really good.
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use the hypothetical (second) conditional, in the main clause, use might/could
if + past simple (conditional clause); would/could/might/should + infinitive (result clause)

for an uncertain result
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in the main clause, use may/might/can/could/ instead of will

for advice
If your card gets stuck, you should ring the number on the machine.
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use should

with be,
If I were you, I'd leave now.
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use were or (informally) was

often with real conditions, where the speaker or writer has real reservations
I'll get a university place providing I pass the entrance exam.
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use providing/provided (that), on condition that and, less formally, as long as, to mean if and only if,

to mean if not
I'll arrive at 10 a.m. unless the train is late.
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use unless

when something is unlikely
Suppose you won the lottery, what would you do?
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use suppose/supposing, imagine and, less formally, let's say instead of if

Complete the sentences
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with the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets

If you give me your phone number, I (ask) Pete to call you back.
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If you give me your phone number, I'll ask Pete to call you back.

Would you be interested if we (offer) you a free trial?
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Would you be interested if we offered you a free trial?

If it (rain), you should wear a waterproof jacket.
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If it rains, you should wear a waterproof jacket.

If I arrived a day early, it (give) me the chance to look around.
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If I arrived a day early, it would give me the chance to look around.

I'm going to get worried if she (not call) soon.
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I'm going to get worried if she doesn't call soon.

If I (be) good with numbers, I could help you with your homework.
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If I were good with numbers, I could help you with your homework.

I may go home early if Anna (not be) at the party.
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I may go home early if Anna isn't at the party.

You (take up) a sport if you want to be in great shape like me.
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You should take up a sport if you want to be in great shape like me.

Underline the correct alternative
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in the sentences.

I'll tell you (?) you promise to keep it a secret.
provided/supposing
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I'll tell you provided you promise to keep it a secret.

We won't go (?) they pay our expenses.
imagine/unless
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We won't go unless they pay our expenses.

(?) you lost your job tomorrow, what would you do then?
Supposing/Provided that
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Supposing you lost your job tomorrow, what would you do then?

(?) that we have enough time, I intend to visit all of my relatives.
If/Providing
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Providing that we have enough time, I intend to visit all of my relatives.

I'm going to leave (?) you stop being aggressive with me.
unless/if
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I'm going to leave unless you stop being aggressive with me.

(?) we met them in the street; how might you react?
Unless/Imagine
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Imagine we met them in the street; how might you react?

Complete the sentences
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so that they mean the same as 1-6 above.

I won't tell you unless
I'll tell you provided you promise to keep it a secret.
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I won't tell you unless you promise to keep a secret.

We won't go if
We won't go unless they pay our expenses.
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We won't go if they don't pay our expenses.

What would you do if you
Supposing you lost your job tomorrow, what would you do then?
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What would you do if you lost your job tomorrow.

I intend to visit all of my relatives unless
Providing that we have enough time, I intend to visit all of my relatives.
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I intend to visit all of my relatives unless we don't have enough time.

I'm going to leave if
I'm going to leave unless you stop being aggressive with me.
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I'm going to leave if you don't stop being aggressive with me.

How might you react if we
Imagine we met them in the street; how might you react?
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How might you react if we met them in the street.


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