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término definición
do widzenia
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□ goodbye noun [countable] We said our goodbyes and left. Their goodbye was very sad because they knew they wouldn’t see each other again for years. ▶ pożegnanie
goodbye /ˌɡʊdˈbaɪ; US / interj. said when sb goes or you go Goodbye! See you tomorrow! We said goodbye (pożegnaliśmy się) to Steven at the airport. ▶ do widzenia Bye, cheers i cheerio mają identyczne znaczenie.
Wielki Piątek
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Good Friday
ˌGood ˈFriday noun [countable] the Friday before Easter when Christians remember the death of Christ ▶ Wielki Piątek
dobry, serdeczny
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ˌgood-ˈhearted adj. kind; willing to help other people To be fair, she was a good-hearted woman who tried to do her best. ▶ (osoba) dobry serdeczny
dobry nastrój
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good humor
□ ˌgood-ˈhumoured (Brit.) (US ˌgood-ˈhumored) adj. pleasant and friendly a good-humoured atmosphere ▶ pogodny wesoły dobroduszny
ˌgood ˈhumour (US ˌgood ˈhumor) noun [uncountable, sing.] a cheerful mood Everyone admired her patience and unfailing good humour. He was in a good humour this morning. ▶ dobry nastrój pogoda ducha
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ˌgood ˈlooks noun [pl.] an attractive appearance (of a person) an actor famour for his rugged good looks ▶ uroda atrakcyjny wygląd
ˌgood-ˈlooking adj. (usually used about a person) attractive ▶ przystojny
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ˌgood-ˈnatured adj. friendly or kind ▶ dobroduszny łagodnego usposobienia dobrego usposobienia
dobroć, dobre serce
Mówi się For goodness’ sake w celu przydania prośbie ponaglenia, lub okazując zniecierpliwienie: For goodness’ sake, hurry up!
Goodness używa się w kilku zwrotach zamiast słowa Bóg. Goodness (me)! wyraża zdziwienie. Thank goodness! wyraża zadowolenie i ulgę: Thank goodness it’s stopped raining!
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goodness, good heart
2 the part of sth that has a good effect, especially on sb/sth’s health Wholemeal bread has more goodness in it (pieczywo pełnoziarniste jest zdrowsze) than white. ▶ wartości zdrowotne/odżywcze
goodness /ˈɡʊdnəs; US / noun [uncountable] 1 the quality of being good ▶ dobroć dobre serce  SYNONYM  virtue
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goodnight /ˌɡʊdˈnaɪt; US / interj. said late in the evening, before you go home or before you go to sleep ▶ dobranoc
towary, ładunek
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goods, cargo
2 (Brit.) things that are carried by train or lorry a goods train pociąg towarowy a heavy goods vehicle (= HGV) ciężki pojazd ciężarowy ▶ ładunek
goods /ɡʊdz; US / noun [pl.] 1 things that are for sale a wide range of consumer goods electrical goods stolen goods ▶ towary (na sprzedaż)
zdrowy rozsądek
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common sense, good sense
ˌgood ˈsense noun [uncountable] good judgement or intelligence He had the good sense to refuse the offer. ▶ zdrowy rozsądek
pociąg towarowy
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goods train
ˈfreight train (Brit. also ˈgoods train) noun [countable] a train that carries only goods ▶ pociąg towarowy
opanowany, łagodny
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ˌgood-ˈtempered adj. not easily made angry ▶ opanowany łagodny
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goodwill /ˌɡʊdˈwɪl; US / noun [uncountable] friendly, helpful feelings towards other people The visit was designed to promote friendship and goodwill. There is a new atmosphere of goodwill in international politics. ▶ dobra wola życzliwość
wyszukiwać przez internet
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You can google someone you’ve recently met to see what information is available about them on the Internet. I tried googling but couldn’t find anything relevant. ▶ wyszukiwać (przez internet)
google /ˈɡu:ɡl; US / verb [i, t] to type words into a search engine on the Internet, especially the Google™search engine, in order to find information about sb/sth
gęś, gęs
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goose, geese
goose /ɡu: s; US / noun [countable] (pl. geese /ɡi: s; US /) a large bird with a long neck that lives on or near water. Geese are kept on farms for their meat and eggs. ▶ gęś A male goose is called a gander and a young goose is a gosling.
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gooseberry /ˈɡʊzbəri; US ˈɡu: sberi / noun [countable] (pl. gooseberries) a small green fruit that is covered in small hairs and has a sour taste ▶ agrest
gęsia skórka
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goose pimples
ˈgoose pimples (also goosebumps /ˈɡu: sbʌmps; US /) noun [pl.] small points or lumps which appear on your skin because you are cold or frightened ▶ gęsia skórka
posoka, zakrzepła krew
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gore1 /ɡɔ:(r); US / noun [uncountable] thick blood that comes from a wound His new film is full of gore. His new film is full of gore. W jego nowym filmie jest pełno krwi. ▶ posoka rozlana/zakrzepła krew
przełom rzeki
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gorge of the river
gorge1 /ɡɔ: dʒ; US / noun [countable] a narrow valley with steep sides and a river running through it ▶ przełom (rzeki)
wspaniały, przepiękny, cudowny
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gorgeous /ˈɡɔ: dʒəs; US / adj. (informal) extremely pleasant or attractive What gorgeous weather! You look gorgeous in that dress. ▶ wspaniały przepiękny pyszny cudowny □ gorgeously /; US / adv. ▶ wspaniale przepięknie cudownie
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gorilla /ɡəˈrɪlə; US / noun [countable] a large black African ape ▶ goryl
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gosling /ˈɡɒzlɪŋ; US / noun [countable] a young goose ▶ gąsiątko
ewangelia, święta prawda
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gospel, holy truth
2 (also ˌgospel ˈtruth) [u] the truth You can’t take what he says as gospel. ▶ święta prawda 3 (also ˈgospel music) [u] a style of religious music that is especially popular among black American Christians ▶religijna muzyka Murzynów amerykańskich
gospel /ˈɡɒspl; US / noun 1 (Gospel) [sing.] one of the four books in the Bible that describe the life of Jesus Christ and the ideas which he taught St Matthew’s/Mark’s/Luke’s/John’s Gospel ▶ Ewangelia
plotka, plotkarstwo
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gossip, gossip
2[countable] an informal conversation about other people’s private lives The two neighbours were having a gossip (plotkowali) over the fence. ▶ plotkowanie plotkarstwo
gossip /ˈɡɒsɪp; US / noun 1 [uncountable] informal talk about other people and their private lives, that is often unkind or not true Matt phoned me up to tell me the latest gossip. He loves to spread gossip about his neighbours. ▶ plotka
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to gossip
3[countable] a person who enjoys talking about other people’s private lives Louise is a real gossip! ▶ plotka-rz/rka
□ gossip verb [intransitive] I can’t stand here gossiping all day. ▶ plotkować
kronika towarzyska
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gossip column
□ ˈgossip columnist noun [countable] No photographers or gossip columnists were allowed in. ▶ redaktor kronik towarzyskiej
ˈgossip column noun [countable] a part of a newspaper or magazine where you can read about the private lives of famous people ▶ kronika towarzyska ⇨ note at newspaper
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Gothic /ˈɡɒɵɪk/ adj. (used about architecture) connected with a style that was common in Europe from the 12th to the 16th centuries. Typical features of Gothic architecture are pointed arches, tall thin pillars, elaborate decoration, etc. ▶ gotycki
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 PHRASAL VERB  gouge sth out to remove or form sth by digging into a surface These deep valleys were gouged out by glaciers. ▶ wyżłabiać coś wydłubywać coś
gouge /ɡaʊdʒ; US / verb [transitive] to make a hole in a surface using a sharp object in a rough way We gouged a deep scratch (zarysowaliśmy) in the wooden floor when we moved the table. ▶ za/drapać zrobić rysę
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gourd /ɡʊəd ɡɔ: d; US; / noun [countable] a type of large fruit, not normally eaten, with hard skin. Gourds are often dried and used as containers. ▶ tykwa
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gourmet /ˈɡʊəmeɪ; US / noun [countable] a person who enjoys food and wine and knows a lot about it a gourmet restaurant restauracja dla smakoszy ▶ smakosz/ka
rządzić kierować
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to govern
2[transitive, often passive] to influence or control sb/sth Our decision will be governed (uzależniona) by the amount of money we have to spend. ▶ wpływać
govern /ˈɡʌvn; US -vərn / verb 1 [intransitive, transitive] to rule or control the public affairs of a country, city, etc. Britain is governed by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. ▶ rządzić kierować zarządzać
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governess /ˈɡʌvənəs; US / noun [countable] (especially in the past) a woman employed to teach the children of a rich family in their home and to live with them ▶ guwernantka
The Government are still discussing the problem. Different types of government are: communist, conservative, democratic, liberal, reactionary, socialist. A country or state may also have a military, provisional, central or federal, coalition
Po słowie government w lp może następować czasownik w lp/lm. lp używa się mówiąc o rządzie jako całości: The Government welcomes the proposal. lm używa się, mówiąc o rządzie jako grupie poszczególnych osób:
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government policy/money/ministers/officials polityka/fundusze/ministrowie/urzędnicy rządu ▶ rząd
government /ˈɡʌvənmənt; US / noun 1(often the Government) [countable, with sing. or pl. verb] the group of people who rule or control a country He has resigned from the Government. The foreign governments involved are meeting in Geneva.
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□ governmental /ˌɡʌvnˈmentl; US / adj. a governmental department different governmental systems ▶ rządowy
2 [uncountable] the activity or method of controlling a country, city, etc. weak/strong/corrupt government communist/democratic/totalitarian government central/federal government Which party is in government (u władzy)? ▶ rządy
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2 the leader or member of a group of people who control an organization the governor of the Bank of England school governors ▶ prezes/ka przewodnicząc-y/a członek komitetu administracyjnego (np. szkoły) zarząd-ca/czyni
governor /ˈɡʌvənə(r); US / noun [countable] 1 a person who rules or controls a region or state (especially in the US) the Governor of New York State ▶ gubernator wojewoda
gubernator generalny
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governor general
the official representative in a country of the country that has or had political control over it, especially the representative of the British King or Queen in a Commonwealth country ▶ gubernator generalny
ˌGovernor ˈGeneral noun [countable] (pl. Governors General or Governor Generals)
skunia, toga
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gown /ɡaʊn; US / noun [countable] 1 a woman’s long formal dress for a special occasion a ball gown suknia balowa ▶ suknia 2 a long loose piece of clothing that is worn by judges, doctors performing operations, etc. ▶ toga fartuch
lekarz pierwszego kontaktu
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a GP (General Practitioner)
GP /ˌdʒi: ˈpi:; US / abbr. general practitioner; a doctor who treats all types of illnesses and works in a practice in a town or village, not in a hospital ▶ lekarz pierwszego kontaktu
wyrwać, chwytać
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Don’t grab – there’s plenty for everybody. • (figurative) He grabbed the opportunity of a free trip (skorzystał z okazji i pojechał na darmową wycieczkę) to America. • (figurative) I’ll try to grab the waitress’s attention. ▶ wyrywać chwytać
grab /ɡræb/ (grabbing; grabbed) 1[i, t] grab sth (from sb) to take sth with a sudden movement Helen grabbed the toy car from her little brother. Grab hold of his arm in case he tries to run! Someone had arrived before us and grabbed all the seats.
rzucać się na kogoś
□ grab /ɡræb; US / noun [countable] She made a grab for the boy but she couldn’t stop him falling. ▶ szybki ruch mający na celu chwycenie/złapanie kogoś/czegoś
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3[transitive] to do sth quickly because you are in a hurry I’ll just grab something to eat (szybko coś przekąszę) and then we’ll go. I grabbed an hour’s sleep (przespałem się godzinę) on the train so I’m not too tired now. ▶ szybko coś zrobić
2[intransitive] grab at/for sth to try to get or catch sb/sth Jonathan grabbed at the ball but missed. I grabbed for the knife but he was too quick. ▶ rzucać się na kogoś/coś
wdzięk, gracja
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grace, grace
2 extra time that is allowed for sth Payment was due today, but we have been given a week’s grace. ▶ prolongata terminu płatności karencja 3 a short prayer of thanks to God before or after a meal to say grace ▶ modlitwa przed posiłkiem/po posiłku
grace /ɡreɪs/ noun [u] 1 the ability to move in a smooth and controlled way He jumps with the grace of a dancer. ▶ wdzięk gracja 4(His/Her/Your Grace) (used when speaking about, or to, a duke, duchess or archbishop) ▶ Wasza Wysokość Ekselencjo
pełen wdzięku gracji
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graceful graceful
□ gracefully /-fəli; US / adv. The goalkeeper rose gracefully to catch the ball. She accepted the decision gracefully. ▶ z uśmiechem na twarzy wdzięcznie zgrabnie —gracefulness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ wdzięk gracja
graceful /ˈɡreɪsfl; US / adj. having a smooth, attractive movement or form a graceful dancer graceful curves ▶ pełen wdzięku/gracji zgrabny
szorstki, bez wdzięku
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graceless /ˈɡreɪsləs; US / adj. 1 not knowing how to be polite to people ▶ szorstki 2 (used about a movement or a shape) ugly and not elegant ▶ bez wdzięku/gracji □ gracelessly /; US / adv. ▶ bez wdzięku/gracji niezgrabnie
łaskawy, wykwintny
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2[only before a noun] showing the easy comfortable way of life that rich people can have gracious living ▶ zbytkowny wykwintny
gracious /ˈɡreɪʃəs/ adj. 1 (used about a person or their behaviour) kind, polite and generous a gracious smile You have to learn to be gracious in defeat. ▶ łaskawy
łaskawy, łaskawie
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kind, kind
3[only before a noun] (formal) (used when speaking about royal people) by gracious permission of Her Majesty ▶ łaskawy □ graciously /; US / adv. ▶ łaskawie —graciousness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ łaskawość
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2[countable] a mark showing a division on a scale the gradations on a thermometer ▶ stopień podziałki
gradation /ɡrəˈdeɪʃn; US / noun 1 [countable, uncountable] (formal) any of the small changes or levels which sth is divided into; the process or result of sth changing gradually gradations of colour gradation in size ▶ stopniowanie
stopień, jakość
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2 a mark that is given for school work, etc. or in an exam He got good/poor grades this term. Very few students pass the exam with a grade A (na najwyższą ocenę). ▶ ocena stopień
grade1 /ɡreɪd; US / noun [countable] 1 the quality or the level of ability, importance, etc. that sb/sth has Which grade of petrol do you need? We need to use high-grade materials for this job. ▶ stopień jakość
klasa szkolna
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3 (US) a class or classes in a school in which all the children are the same age My daughter is in the third grade. ▶ klasa szkolna
klasyfikować, gradować
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grade /ɡreɪd/ [t, often passive] to put things or people into groups according to their quality, ability etc I’ve graded their work from 1 to 10. Students with 90% correct are graded A. Eggs are graded by size. ▶ klasyfikować segregować sortować
stopień nachylenia
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gradient /ˈɡreɪdiənt; US / noun [countable] the degree at which a road, etc. goes up or down The hill has a gradient of 1 in 4. a steep gradient ▶ stopień nachylenia
stopniowo, stopniowy
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gradually, gradual
□ gradually /-dʒuəli; US / adv. After the war life gradually got back to normal. ▶ stopniowo
gradual /ˈɡrædʒuəl; US / adj. happening slowly or over a long period of time; not sudden There has been a gradual increase in the number of people without jobs. ▶ stopniowy  OPPOSITE  sudden
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a graduate
a graduate student student/ka podyplomow-y/a (zwłaszcza osoba na studiach magisterskich) ⇨ look at postgraduate, undergraduate, bachelor, student ▶ absolwent/ka studiów wyższych (licencjackich)
graduate1 /ˈɡrædʒuət; US / noun [countable] 1 a graduate (in sth) a person who has a first degree from a university, etc. a law graduate/a graduate in law a graduate of London University/a London University graduate
kończyć studia
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2 (US) graduate (from sth) to complete a course at a school, college, etc. ▶ kończyć (np. szkołę)
graduate2 /ˈɡrædʒueɪt; US / verb [intransitive] 1 graduate (in sth) (from sth) to get a (first) degree from a university, etc. She graduated in History from Cambridge University. ▶ kończyć studia wyższe (licencjackie)
przechodzić na wyższy poziom
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3graduate (from sth) to sth to change (from sth) to sth more difficult, important, expensive, etc. She’s graduated from being a classroom assistant to teaching. ▶ przechodzić na wyższy poziom
ukończnie studiów wyższych
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2[sing.] a ceremony in which certificates are given to people who have graduated Did your family come to your graduation? ▶ uroczystość nadania dyplomów akademickich
graduation /ˌɡrædʒuˈeɪʃn; US / noun 1 [uncountable] the act of successfully completing a university degree or (in the US) studies at a high school ▶ ukończenie studiów wyższych
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graffiti /ɡrəˈfi: ti; US / noun [uncountable, pl.] pictures or writing on a wall, etc. in a public place The wall was covered with graffiti. ▶ graffiti
szczep, przeszczep
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□ graft verb [transitive] graft sth onto sth Skin from his leg was grafted onto the burnt area of his face. ▶ szczepić przeszczepiać ⇨ look at transplant
graft /ɡrɑ: ft noun [c] 1 a piece of a living plant that is fixed onto another plant so that it will grow ▶ szczep 2 a piece of living skin, bone, etc. that is fixed onto a damaged part of a body in an operation a skin graft ▶ przeszczep
zbożne, ziarno
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cereal, grain
2 [countable] a grain of sth a very small piece of sth a grain of sand/salt/sugar • (figurative) There isn’t a grain of truth (nie ma ziarna prawdy) in the rumour. ▶ ziarenko szczypta
grain /ɡreɪn; US / noun ⇨ POSŁUCHAJ NAGRAŃ PRZYKŁADÓW 1[uncountable, countable] the seeds of food plants such as rice, etc. The US is a major producer of grain. grain exports a few grains of rice ▶ zboże produkty zbożowe ziarno
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2 having a rough surface or containing small bits, seeds, etc. a grainy texture ▶ ziarnisty
grainy /ˈɡreɪni; US / adj. 1 (especially used about photographs) not having completely clear images because they look as if they are made of a lot of small dots and marks The film is shot in grainy black and white. ▶ ziarnisty
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gram (also gramme) /ɡræm; US / noun [countable] (abbr. g, gm) a measure of weight. There are 1 000 grams in a kilogram. ▶ gram
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2[uncountable] the way in which sb uses the rules of a language You have a good vocabulary, but your grammar needs improvement. ▶ gramatyka 3[countable] a book that describes and explains the rules of a language a French grammar ▶ gramatyka
grammar /ˈɡræmə(r); US / noun 1 [uncountable] the rules of a language, for example for forming words or joining words together in sentences Polish grammar can be difficult for foreign learners. ▶ gramatyka zasady gramatyki
szkoła średnia ogólnoształcąca
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grammar school
ˈgrammar school noun [countable] (in Britain, especially in the past) a type of secondary school for children from 11-18 who are good at academic subjects ▶ szkoła średnia ogólnokształcąca
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□ grammatically /-kli; US / adv. ▶ gramatycznie
grammatical /ɡrəˈmætɪkl; US / adj. 1 connected with grammar the grammatical rules for forming plurals ▶ gramatyczny 2 following the rules of a language The sentence is not grammatical. ▶ gramatyczny
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granary /ˈɡrænəri; US / noun [countable] (pl. granaries) a building where grain is stored ▶ spichlerz
wileki, okazały
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□ grandly /; US / adv. ▶ z rozmachem wielkopańsko —grandness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ wspaniałość okazałość majestatyczność
grand1 /ɡrænd/ adj. 1 impressive and large or important (also used in names) Our house isn’t very grand, but it has a big garden. She thinks she’s very grand because she drives a Porsche. the Grand Canyon ▶ wielki okazały imponujący ważny
wnuk / wnuczka
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grandson, granddaughter
grandchild /ˈɡræntʃaɪld; US / noun [countable] the daughter or son of your child ▶ wnuk wnuczka
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grandfather /ˈɡrænfɑ:ðə(r); US / noun [countable] the father of your father or mother ▶ dziadek
zegar stojący
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grandfather clock
ˈgrandfather clock noun [countable] a clock that stands on the floor in a tall wooden case ▶ zegar stojący
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grandmother /ˈɡrænmʌðə(r); US / noun [countable] the mother of your father or mother ▶ babka babcia babunia
dziadek, babcia
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Aby odróżnić dziadków ze strony ojca od dziadków ze strony matki używa się określeń my paternal/maternal grandfather lub my father’s/mother’s father.
grandparent /ˈɡrænpeərənt; US / noun [countable] the mother or father of one of your parents This is a picture of two of my grandparents. ▶ dziadek babka
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grand piano
ˌgrand piˈano noun [countable] a large flat piano (with horizontal strings) ▶ fortepian
wielki szlem
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Grand Slam
ˌgrand ˈslam noun [countable] winning all the important matches or competitions in a particular sport, for example tennis or rugby ▶ wielki szlem
kryte trybuny
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grandstand /ˈɡrænstænd; US / noun [countable] rows of seats, usually covered by a roof, from which you get a good view of a sports competition, etc. ▶ kryte trybuny
suma ogólna
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grand total
ˌgrand ˈtotal noun [countable] the amount that you get when you add several totals together ▶ suma ogólna
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granite /ˈɡrænɪt; US / noun [uncountable] a hard grey rock ▶ granit
przyznawać, udzialać
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2 to agree (that sth is true) I grant you that New York is an interesting place but I still wouldn’t want to live there. ▶ przyznawać (rację) zgadzać się
grant1 /ɡrɑ: nt/ verb [t] 1(formal) to (officially) give sb what they have asked for A visa has been granted to one of our journalists. He was granted permission to leave early. Zezwolono mu na wcześniejsze wyjście. ▶ przyznawać zezwalać udzielać
stypendium, subwencja
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grant2 /ɡrɑ: nt; US ɡrænt / noun [countable] money that is given by the government, etc. for a particular purpose a student grant to apply for/be awarded a grant ▶ do/finansowanie stypendium subwencja
cukier kryształ
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granulated sugar
granulated sugar /ˌɡrænjuleɪtɪd ˈʃʊɡə(r); US / noun [uncountable] white sugar in the form of small grains ▶ cukier kryształ
granulka, ziarenko
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granule /ˈɡrænju: l; US / noun [countable] a small hard piece of sth instant coffee granules ▶ granulka ziarenko
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Green grapes are usually called ‘ white’ and purple grapes are usually called ‘ black’ (czerwone). Grapes that have been dried are called raisins, currants or sultanas.
grape /ɡreɪp; US / noun [countable] a small soft green or purple fruit that grows in bunches on a vine and that is used for making wine a bunch of grapes kiść winogron ▶ winogrono
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grapefruit /ˈɡreɪpfru: t; US / noun [countable] (pl. grapefruit or grapefruits) a large round yellow fruit with a thick skin and a sour taste ▶ grejpfrut
poczta pantoflowa
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the grapevine /ˈɡreɪpvaɪn; US / noun [sing.] the way that news is passed from one person to another I heard on/through the grapevine that you’re moving. ▶ poczta pantoflowa
wykres, diagram
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chart, diagram
graph /ɡræf ɡrɑ: f; US / noun [countable] a diagram in which a line or a curve shows the relationship between two quantities, measurements, etc. a graph showing/to show the number of cars sold each month ▶ wykres diagram
graficzny, obrazowy
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graphic, pictorial
2 (used about descriptions) clear and giving a lot of detail, especially about sth unpleasant She described the accident in graphic detail. ▶ obrazowy malowniczy □ graphically /-kli; US / adv. ▶ graficznie obrazowo malowniczo
graphic /ˈɡræfɪk; US / adj. 1 [only before a noun] connected with drawings, diagrams, etc. a graphic artist graphic design grafika ▶ graficzny
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graphical /ˈɡræfɪkl; US / adj. 1 [only before a noun] connected with art or computergraphics The system uses an impressive graphical interface. ▶ graficzny 2 in the form of a diagram orgraph a graphical presentation of results ▶ graficzny
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graphics /ˈɡræfɪks; US / noun [pl.] the production of drawings, diagrams, etc. computer graphics ▶ grafika
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graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt; US / noun [uncountable] a soft black mineral that is used in pencils ▶ grafit
papier milimetrowy
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graph paper
ˈgraph paper noun [uncountable] paper with small squares of equal size printed on it, used for drawing graphs and other diagrams ▶ papier milimetrowy
siłować się, mocować się
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grapple /ˈɡræpl/ verb [intransitive] grapple (with sb) to get hold of sb and fight with or try to control them She grappled with the thief, but he got away. We have been grappling with this problem all day. ▶ siłować się mocować się borykać się
chwytać, mocno trzymać
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2 to understand sth completely I don’t think you’ve grasped how serious the situation is. ▶ rozumieć pojmować
grasp1 /ɡrɑ: sp; US ɡræ- / verb [transitive] 1 to take hold of sb/sth suddenly and firmly Lisa grasped the child firmly by the hand before crossing the road. • (figurative) to grasp an opportunity/a chance ▶ chwytać mocno trzymać
uchwyt, trzymanie w ręku
3 the ability to get or achieve sth Finally their dream was within their grasp (w zasięgu ręki).
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2 sb’s understanding of a subject or of difficult facts He has a good grasp of English grammar. Dobrze rozumie zasady gramatyki angielskiej. The concept of history is beyond the grasp of young children. ▶ zrozumienie pojęcie (o czymś)
ɡrɑ: sp noun [sing., u] 1 a firm hold of sb/sth Get a good grasp on the rope before pulling yourself up. I grabbed the boy, but he slipped from my grasp. Some politicians seem to have very little grasp on reality. ▶ uchwyt trzymanie w ręce
chciwy, zachłanny
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greedy, grasping
grasping /ˈɡrɑ: spɪŋ; US ˈɡræs- / adj. wanting very much to have a lot more money, power, etc. ▶ chciwy zachłanny
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2 [countable] one type of grass an arrangement of dried flowers and grasses ▶ trawa grassy /ˈɡrɑ: si; US ˈɡræ- / adj. (grassier; grassiest) covered with grass ▶ trawiasty
grass /ɡrɑ: s; US ɡræs / noun 1[u]. Cows, sheep, horses, etc. eat grass She lay on the grass and listened to the birds singing. Don’t walk on the grass. I must cut the grass at the weekend. a blade (źdźbło) of grass ▶ trawa
konik polny
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grasshopper /ˈɡrɑ: shɒpə(r); US ˈɡræ- / noun [countable] an insect that lives in long grass or trees and that can jump high in the air. Grasshoppers make loud noises. ▶ konik polny pasikonik
ruszt, palenisko
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grate, firebox
grate1 /ɡreɪt; US / noun [countable] the metal frame that holds the wood, coal, etc. in a fireplace ▶ ruszt palenisko
trzeć, ścierać
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2[intransitive] grate (on sb) to annoy It’s her voice that grates on me. ▶ denerwować irytować drażnić
grate2 /ɡreɪt; US / verb 1 [transitive] to rub food into small pieces using a grater grated cheese/carrot Grate the cheese and sprinkle it over the top of the dish. ▶ trzeć ścierać
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□ gratefully /-fəli; US / adv. ▶ z wdzięcznością
/ˈɡreɪtfl / adj. grateful (to sb) (for sth); grateful (that…) We are very grateful to you for all the help you have given us. He was very grateful that you did as he asked. I should be very grateful if you could send me a copy of your brochure.
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grater /ˈɡreɪtə(r); US / noun [countable] a kitchen tool that is used for cutting food (for example cheese) into small pieces by rubbing it across its rough surface ▶ tarka
zadowalać, sprawiać przyjemność
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□ gratifying /; US / adj. ▶ zadowalający sprawiający przyjemność
/ˈɡrætɪfaɪ/ verb [t] (gratifying; gratifies; past tense, past participle gratified ) [usually passive] (formal) to give sb pleasure and satisfaction I was gratified to hear that you enjoyed my book. ▶ zadowalać sprawiać przyjemność
krata, okratowanie
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grille, grating
grating /ˈɡreɪtɪŋ; US / noun [countable] a frame made of metal bars that is fixed over a hole in the road, a window, etc. ▶ krata (metalowa) okratowanie

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