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término definición
konflikt, walka
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2 a difference between two or more ideas, wishes, etc. Many women have to cope with the conflict between their career and their family. a conflict of interests ▶ sprzeczność konflikt
1(a) conflict with sb/sth (over sth) a fight or an argument an armed conflict konflikt zbrojny The new laws have brought the Government into conflict with the unions over pay increases. ▶ konflikt walka
kolidować, być sprzecznym z
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verb [intransitive] A and B conflict; A conflicts with B to disagree with or be different from sb/sth The statements of the two witnesses conflict. John’s statement conflicts with yours. conflicting results ▶ być sprzecznym kolidować
odpowiadać, dostosować się
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2 to obey a rule or law This building does not conform to fire regulations. ▶ dostosowywać się (do czegoś) przystosowywać się □ conformity /kənˈfɔ: məti; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ przestrzeganie (np. reguł) dostosowanie się
conform (to sth) 1 to behave in the way that other people and society expect you to behave Children are under a lot of pressure to conform when they first start school. ▶ odpowiadać (np. normom, wymaganiom)
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conformist /kənˈfɔ: mɪst; US / noun [countable] a person who behaves in the way that people are expected to behave by society ▶ konformista
stawiać czoło,
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2 to stand in front of sb, for example because you want to fight them The unarmed demonstrators were confronted by a row of soldiers. ▶ stawać twarzą w twarz (z kimś/czymś)
1confront sth; confront sb with sb/sth to think about, or to make sb think about, sth that is difficult or unpleasant to confront a problem/issue When the police confronted him with the evidence, he confessed. ▶ stawać wobec problemu, stawiać czoło
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confrontation /ˌkɒnfrʌnˈteɪʃn; US -frən- / noun [countable, uncountable] a fight or an argument ▶ konfrontacja
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confrontational /ˌkɒnfrʌnˈteɪʃnl; US -frən- / adj. tending to deal with people in an aggressive way that is likely to cause arguments, rather than discussing things with them ▶ konfrontacyjny
mieszać w głowie, mylić
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confuse, confuse
2confuse A and/with B to mistake sb/sth for sb/sth else I often confuse Lee with his brother. They look very much alike. ▶ mylić 3 to make sth complicated The situation is confused by the fact that so many organizations are involved. ▶ gmatwać
1 to make sb unable to think clearly or to know what to do He confused everybody with his pages of facts and figures. I’m a bit confused (nie całkiem rozumiem). Could you explain that again? ▶ mieszać (komuś) w głowie wikłać
zmieszana, pogmatwana
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confused, confused
1 not able to think clearly When he regained consciousness he was dazed and confused (nie mógł zebrać myśli). ▶ zmieszany zakłopotany 2 difficult to understand The article is very confused – I don’t know what the main point is. ▶ pogmatwany, poplątany
niejasny, mylący
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confusing /kənˈfju: zɪŋ; US / adj. difficult to understand Her instructions were contradictory and confusing. ▶ niejasny mylący
zamieszanie, zakłopotanie
3 a lack of order In the panic and confusion two people were trampled to death. Their unexpected visit threw all our plans into confusion (pogmatwała nasze plany). ▶ zamieszanie chaos
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confusion, confusion
2 the act of mistaking sb/sth for sb/sth else To avoid confusion, all luggage should be labelled with your name and destination. ▶ zamieszanie pomyłka
1 the state of not being able to think clearly or not understanding sth He stared in confusion at the exam paper. There is still a great deal of confusion as to the true facts. ▶ zamieszanie nieporozumienie zakłopotanie
krzepnąć, ścinać się
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congeal /kənˈdʒi: l; US / verb [intransitive, transitive] (used about a liquid) to become solid; to make a liquid solid congealed blood ▶ krzepnąć ścinać (się) zamarzać
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congenital /kənˈdʒenɪtl; US / adj. (used about a disease) beginning at and continuing since birth congenital brain damage ▶ wrodzony
zatłoczony, przytłoczony
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so full of sth that nothing can move The streets of London are congested with traffic. ▶ zatłoczony przeciążony □ congestion /kənˈdʒestʃən; US / noun [uncountable] severe traffic congestion ▶ zatłoczenie przeciążenie
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conglomerate /kənˈɡlɒmərət; US / noun [countable] a large firm made up of several different companies ▶ konglomerat
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verb [transitive] congratulate sb (on sth) to tell sb that you are pleased about sth they have done Colin congratulated Sue on passing her driving test. They sent a card to congratulate the couple on their engagement. ▶ gratulować
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(used for telling sb that you are pleased about sth they have done) Congratulations (gratulacje z okazji) on the birth of your baby boy! Congratulations! Your painting has won first prize. ▶ gratulacje
gromadzić się, wierni, parafianie
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congregation /ˌkɒŋɡrɪˈɡeɪʃn; US / noun [countable, with sing. or pl. verb] the group of people who attend a particular church ▶ parafianie wierni
congregate /ˈkɒŋɡrɪɡeɪt; US / verb [intransitive] to come together in a crowd or group ▶ gromadzić się, zbierać się
kongres, zjazd
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congress, congress
2(Congress) the name in some countries (for example the US) for the group of people who are elected to make the laws Congress will vote on the proposals tomorrow. ▶ Kongres
1 a large formal meeting or series of meetings a medical congress When is the Trades Union Congress held? ▶ kongres zjazd
kongresman, kongreswoman
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congressman, congresswoman
a member of Congress in the US, especially the House of Representatives ▶ kongresman
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conical /ˈkɒnɪkl; US / adj. having a round base and getting narrower towards a point at the top ▶ stożkowy stożkowaty ⇨ noun cone
drzewo iglaste, drzewo szpilkowe
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coniferous tree, pinewood tree
conifer /ˈkɒnɪfə(r); ˈkəʊn-; US / noun [countable] a tree with needles that stays green all through the year and that has cones ▶ drzewo iglaste □ coniferous /kəˈnɪfərəs; US / adj. ▶ iglasty szpilkowy
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in conjunction with sb/sth together with sb/sth Various charities are working in conjunction with the United Nations to help the disaster victims. ▶ w połączeniu z czymś razem z kimś/czymś
conjunction /kənˈdʒʌŋkʃn; US / noun [countable] a word that is used for joining other words, phrases or sentences ‘ And’, ‘ but’ and ‘ or’ are conjunctions. ▶ spójnik
łączyć się
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2[transitive] connect sb/sth (with sb/sth) There was no evidence that she was connected with (że była zamieszana w) the crime. Doctors believe that the increase in asthma is connected with (jest związany z) pollution levels. ▶ wiązać (z kimś/czymś
The tunnels connect (up) ten metres further on. This pipe connects with the main drain outside the house. The plumber hasn’t connected the shower up yet. ▶ łączyć (się) z czymś podłączać do czegoś
związek, połączenie pomiędzy czymś/kimś a czymś/kimś
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2[countable] a place where two wires, pipes, etc. join together The radio doesn’t work. There must be a loose connection somewhere. ▶ kontakt 3[countable] Our bus was late so we missed our connection. ▶ połączenie
There is a clear connection between crime and alcoholism. Is there any connection between the two organizations? What’s your connection with Brazil? Have you worked there? I’m having problems with my Internet connection. ▶ związek połączenie
w związku z tym,
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in connection with sb/sth
in connection with sb/sth (formal) about or concerning I am writing to you in connection with your application. ▶ w związku z kimś/czymś w sprawie kogoś/czegoś in this/that connection (formal) about or concerning this/that ▶ w związku z tym
patrzeć przez palce,
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Oppostion leaders suggested the government had connived at the violence
connive at sth ▶ tolerować patrzeć przez palce przyzwalać na coś pobłażać 2connive (with sb) (to do sth) to work together with sb to do sth that is wrong The two parties connived to get rid of the president. ▶ współdziałać (np. w zbrodni)
potajemnie sprawiający komuś przykrość lub przyzwalający na sprawienie komuś przykrości
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a cold, conniving man
conniving /; US / adj. behaving in a way that secretly hurts others or deliberately fails to prevent others from being hurt ▶ potajemnie sprawiający komuś przykrość lub przyzwalający na sprawienie komuś przykrości
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connoisseur /ˌkɒnəˈsɜ:(r); US; -ˈsʊr / noun [countable] a person who knows a lot about art, good food, wine, music, etc. a connoisseur of modern art ▶ koneser/ka znaw-ca/czyni
zabarwienie, konotacja
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connotation /ˌkɒnəˈteɪʃn; US / noun [countable] an idea expressed by a word in addition to its main meaning ‘ Spinster’ means a single woman but it has negative connotations. ▶ zabarwienie konotacja
podbić, zdobywać
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to conquer
2 to succeed in controlling or dealing with a strong feeling, problem, etc. She’s trying to conquer her fear of flying. The government is trying to conquer rising unemployment in the north. ▶ pokonać podbić
1 to take control of a country or city and its people by force, especially in a war Napoleon’s ambition was to conquer Europe. • (figurative) The young singer conquered the hearts of audiences all over the world. ▶ podbić zdobyć
zdobywca, zdobywczyni
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conqueror, conqueror
conqueror /ˈkɒŋkərə(r); US / noun [countable] a person who has conquered (1) sth ▶ zdobyw-ca/czyni
podbój, podbity obszar
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conquest, conquered area
[countable, uncountable] an act of conquering sth the Norman conquest (of England in 1066) the conquest of Mount Everest romantic conquests podboje sercowe ▶ podbój 2[countable] an area of land that has been taken in a war ▶ podbity obszar
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conscience /ˈkɒnʃəns; US / noun [countable, uncountable] the part of your mind that tells you if what you are doing is right or wrong a clear/a guilty conscience ▶ sumienie
mieć coś na sumieniu
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have sth on your conscience
have sth on your conscience to feel guilty because you have done sth wrong ▶ mieć coś na sumieniu
skrupulatny, sumienny
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conscientious /ˌkɒnʃiˈenʃəs; US / adj. (used about people) careful to do sth correctly and well He’s a conscientious worker. ▶ skrupulatny sumienny □ conscientiously /; US / adv. ▶ skrupulatnie sumiennie
skrupulatnie, sumiennie
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□ conscientiously /; US / adv. ▶ skrupulatnie sumiennie
samotny, świadomy
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2 able to see, hear, feel, etc. things; awake The injured driver was still conscious when the ambulance arrived. ▶ przytomny 3 that you do on purpose or for a particular reason We made a conscious effort to treat both children equally. ▶ świadomy
1[not before a noun] conscious (of sth/that...) noticing or realizing that sth exists She didn’t seem conscious of the danger. Bill suddenly became conscious that someone was following him. Young people today are very fashion-conscious. ▶ świadomy
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□ consciously /; US / adv. I have never consciously harmed another human being. ▶ świadomie
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2[uncountable, sing.] consciousness (of sth) the state of realizing or noticing that sth exists There is (a) growing consciousness of the need to save energy. ▶ świadomość
consciousness /ˈkɒnʃəsnəs; US / noun 1 [uncountable] the state of being able to see, hear, feel, etc. As he fell, he hit his head and lost consciousness. She regained consciousness after two weeks in a coma. ▶ przytomność
pobór, powoływać do wojska
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conscript1 /kənˈskrɪpt; US / verb [transitive] to make sb join the army, navy or air force When war broke out all the young men were conscripted. ▶ powoływać do wojska □ conscription /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ pobór (do wojska)
poborowy, rekrut
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conscript, recruit
conscript2 /ˈkɒnskrɪpt; US / noun [countable] a person who has been conscripted ▶ poborowy rekrut
święcić, konsekrować
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to consecrate
□ consecration /ˌkɒnsɪˈkreɪʃn; US / noun [countable, uncountable] ▶ poświęcenie konsekracja
consecrate /ˈkɒnsɪkreɪt; US / verb [transitive] to state formally in a special ceremony that a place or an object can be used for religious purposes The Bishop consecrated the new church. ▶ święcić konsekrować
kolejny z rzędu
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consecutive /kənˈsekjətɪv; US / adj. coming or happening one after the other This is the team’s fourth consecutive win. ▶ kolejny z rzędu □ consecutively /; US / adv. ▶ kolejno z rzędu po kolei
zgoda, jednomyślność
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[sing., uncountable] (a) consensus (among/between sb) (on/about sth) agreement among a group of people to reach a consensus There is no consensus among experts about the causes of global warming. ▶ jednomyślność zgoda porozumienie
następstwo, skutek, znaczenie
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2[uncountable] (formal) importance It is of no consequence. ▶ znaczenie
1 [countable] something that happens or follows as a result of sth else Many people may lose their jobs as a consequence of recent poor sales. The error had tragic consequences. ▶ następstwo skutek konsekwencja rezultat
wynikający, konsekwentny
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□ consequently /; US / adv. She didn’t work hard enough, and consequently failed the exam. ▶ w konsekwencji wskutek (czegoś) w rezultacie
consequent /ˈkɒnsɪkwənt; US / adj. [only before a noun] (formal) following as the result of sth else The lack of rain and consequent poor harvests have led to food shortages. ▶ wynikający następujący
ochrona środowiska, ochrona, konserwacja
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2 not allowing sth to be wasted, damaged or destroyed the conservation of energy oszczędność energii ▶ ochrona konserwacja
conservation /ˌkɒnsəˈveɪʃn; US / noun [uncountable] 1 the protection of the natural world Conservation groups are protesting against the plan to build a road through the forest. ▶ ochrona środowiska konserwacja
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conservatism /kənˈsɜ: vətɪzəm; US / noun [uncountable] 1 the disapproval of new ideas and change ▶ konserwatyzm 2(usually Conservatism) the beliefs of the Conservative Party ▶ konserwatyzm
konserwatywny, ostrożny
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3 (used when you are guessing how much sth costs) lower than the real figure or amount Even a conservative estimate would put the damage at about £ 4 000 to repair. ▶ ostrożny skromny □ conservatively /; US / adv. ▶ ostrożnie skromnie
1 (Conservative) connected with the British Conservative Party Conservative voters ▶ dot. Partii Konserwatywnej 2 not liking change; traditional He has very conservative tastes. ▶ konserwatywny
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conservative2 /kənˈsɜ: vətɪv; US / noun [countable] 1 a person who does not like change ▶ konserwatyst(k)a 2(usually Conservative) (abbr. Con) a member of the British Conservative Party ▶ człon-ek/kini Partii Konserwatywnej
szklarnia, cieplarnia
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conservatory /kənˈsɜ: vətri; US -tɔ: ri / noun [countable] (pl. conservatories) a room with a glass roof and walls often built onto the outside of a house ▶ szklarnia cieplarnia
oszczędzać, chronić
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2 to protect sth and prevent it from being changed or destroyed new laws to conserve wildlife in the area ▶ chronić konserwować
1 to use as little of sth as possible so that it lasts a long time to conserve water You should conserve your energy as we’ve still a long way to walk. ▶ oszczędzać
3 to remember or pay attention to sth, especially sb’s feelings I can’t just move abroad. I have to consider my family. Be tactful. Consider how other people feel. ▶ brać pod uwagę mieć wzgląd na coś
2consider sb/sth (as/to be) sth; consider that... to think about sb/sth in a particular way He considered the risk (to be) too great. He considered that the risk was too great. Jane considers herself an expert on the subject. ▶ sądzić, że
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They are considering him for the part of Romeo. She had never considered nursing as a career. He is still considering what material to include in the book. ▶ rozważać zastanawiać się (nad czymś)
1consider sb/sth (for/as sth); consider doing sth to think about sth carefully, often before making a decision We’re considering going to Spain for our holidays. We must consider the matter carefully before we make our choice.
znaczny, znacznie
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□ considerably /-əbli; US / adv. This flat is considerably larger than our last one. ▶ znacznie
great in amount or size We had considerable difficulty in getting tickets A considerable number of people preferred the old building to the new one. We had considerable difficulty in getting tickets for the flights we wanted. ▶ znaczny niemały
troskliwy, uważający, uprzejmy
uprzejmy liczący się z innymi delikatny troskliwy uważający
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considerate (of sb) (to do sth); considerate (towards sb) careful not to upset people; thinking of others It was very considerate of you (ładnie z twojej strony) to offer to drive me home. She is always considerate towards her employees. ▶ uprzejmy
okoliczności, rozwaga
3[uncountable] consideration (for sb/sth) the quality of thinking about what other people need or feel Most drivers show little consideration for cyclists. ▶ wzgląd (np. na czyjeś uczucia)
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2[countable] something that you think about when you are making a decision If he changes his job, the salary will be an important consideration. ▶ okoliczność wzgląd
(formal) an act of thinking about sth carefully or for a long time I have given some consideration to the idea but I don’t think it would work. After careful consideration, we regret that we cannot offer you the position. ▶ namysł rozwaga uwaga
brać coś pod uwagę
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take sth into consideration
take sth into consideration to think about sth when you are forming an opinion or making a decision ▶ brać coś pod uwagę
zważywszy na coś
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considering something
(used for introducing a surprising fact) when you think about or remember sth He coped with the long journey well, considering his age. Considering you’ve only been studying for a year, you speak English very well. ▶ zważywszy (na coś)
przesyłka, dostawa
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consignment /kənˈsaɪnmənt; US / noun [countable] 1 goods that are being sent to sb/sth ▶ przesyłka 2 a quantity of goods that are sent or delivered somewhere a new consignment of books ▶ dostawa wysyłka (towaru)
polegać na czymś
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consist in sth
consist in sth to have sth as its main point Her job consisted in welcoming the guests as they arrived. ▶ polegać na czymś
składać się z czegoś
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consist of something
consist of sth to be formed or made up of sth Pastry consists of flour, fat and water. The band consists of a singer, two guitarists and a drummer. ▶ składać się z czegoś
konsekwencja, konsystencja
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2[countable, uncountable] how thick or smooth a liquid substance is The mixture should have a thick, sticky consistency. ▶ konsystencja gęstość
1[uncountable] the quality of always having the same standard, opinions, behaviour, etc. Your work lacks consistency. ▶ konsekwencja zgodność  OPPOSITE  inconsistency
konsekwentny, zgodny z czymś
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2consistent (with sth) agreeing with or similar to sth I’m afraid your statement is not consistent with what the other witnesses said. ▶ zgodny (z czymś) consistently /; US / adv. ▶ konsekwentnie niezmiennie
always having the same opinions, standard, behaviour, etc.; not changing You must be consistent. If you punish Peter, you must punish Paul for doing the same thing. ▶ konsekwentny
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□ consolidation /kənˌsɒlɪˈdeɪʃn; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ konsolidacja wzmocnienie utrwalanie
to become or to make sth firmer or stronger We’re going to consolidate what we’ve learnt so far by doing some revision exercises today. ▶ konsolidować (się) wzmacniać (się) utrwalać (się)
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consortium /kənˈsɔ: tiəm; US / noun [countable] (pl. consortiums or consortia /-tiə; US /) a group of companies that work closely together for a particular purpose ▶ konsorcjum
rzucający się w oczy
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□ conspicuously /; US / adv. She was conspicuously dressed in bright colours. ▶ w sposób rzucający się w oczy w sposób zwracający uwagę widocznie
conspicuous /kənˈspɪkjuəs; US / adj. easily seen or noticed As a tall, blond American he was very conspicuous in China. ▶ rzucający się w oczy zwracający uwagę widoczny  OPPOSITE  inconspicuous
spisek, konspiracja
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a secret plan by a group of people to do sth bad or illegal a conspiracy against the president ▶ spisek konspiracja 2 planning sth, especially a crime, together with other people They were accused of conspiracy to murder. ▶ zbrodnicze knowania spisek
spiskować, konspirować
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to conspire, to conspire
2conspire (against sb/sth) (used about events) to seem to work together to make sth bad happen When we both lost our jobs in the same week, we felt that everything was conspiring against us. ▶ sprzysięgać się (przeciwko komuś/czemuś)
1conspire (with sb) (to do sth) to plan to do sth bad or illegal with a group of people A group of terrorists were conspiring to blow up the plane. ▶ spiskować konspirować knuć
ciągły, uporczywy, stały
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continuous, persistent, constant
2 that does not change You use less petrol if you drive at a constant speed. ▶ stały niezmienny
constant /ˈkɒnstənt; US / adj. 1 happening or existing all the time or again and again The constant noise gave me a headache. There were constant interruptions (ciągle nam przeszkadzano) so we didn’t get the work finished. ▶ ciągły nieustanny
ciągle, stale
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constantly /ˈkɒnstəntli; US / adv. always; again and again The situation is constantly changing. ▶ ciągle stale
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constellation /ˌkɒnstəˈleɪʃn; US / noun [countable] a group of stars that forms a pattern and has a name ▶ gwiazdozbiór
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consternation /ˌkɒnstəˈneɪʃn; US / noun [uncountable] a feeling of shock or worry We stared at each other in consternation. ▶ konsternacja
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2 to be one of the parts that form sth Women constitute a high proportion of part-time workers. ▶ stanowić
constitute /ˈkɒnstɪtju: t/ verb [transitive] [not used in the continuous tenses] (formal) 1 to be considered as sth; to be equal to sth The presence of the troops constitutes a threat to peace. ▶
skład, konstytucja
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3[countable] (old-fashioned) the way sth is put together ▶ organizm budowa
1 [countable] the basic laws or rules of a country or organization the United States constitution ▶ konstytucja 2[uncountable] the way the parts of sth are put together; the structure of sth the constitution of DNA ▶ skład układ
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constitutional /ˌkɒnstɪˈtju:ʃənl; US -təˈtu:- / adj. connected with or allowed by the constitution of a country, etc. constitutional reform It is not constitutional to imprison a person without trial. ▶ konstytucyjny
krępować, przymuszać
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2constrain sb (from doing sth) to limit sb/sth The company’s growth has been constrained by high taxes. ▶ ograniczać krępować
constrain /kənˈstreɪn; US / verb [transitive] (formal) 1constrain sb/sth (to do sth) to force sb/sth to do sth Following his mistake, the chairman felt constrained to resign. ▶ przymuszać
ograniczenie, skrępowanie
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constraint /kənˈstreɪnt; US / noun [countable, uncountable] something that limits you; a restriction There are always some financial constraints on a project like this. ▶ ograniczenie skrępowanie
Ścieśniać, kurczyć, ograniczać
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2 to limit sb’s freedom to do sth ▶ ograniczać □ constriction /; US / noun [countable, uncountable] ▶ skurczenie ograniczenie
constrict /kənˈstrɪkt; US / verb [intransitive, transitive] 1 to become or make sth tighter, narrower or less She felt her throat constrict with fear. The valve constricts the flow of air. ▶ ścieśniać (się) kurczyć (się) ograniczać
konstruować, budować
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construct /kənˈstrʌkt; US / verb [transitive] to build or make sth Early houses were constructed out of mud and sticks. ▶ konstruować budować Construct jest słowem bardziej formalnym niż build.
budowla, konstrukcja
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building, construction
(formal) something that has been built or made; a building The new pyramid was a construction of steel. ▶ konstrukcja 3[countable] the way that words are used together in a phrase or sentence a difficult grammatical construction ▶ konstrukcja
1 [uncountable] the act or method of building or making sth A new bridge is now under construction (w budowie). He works in the construction industry (w budownictwie). ▶ budowa
konstruktywny, twórczy
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constructive /kənˈstrʌktɪv; US / adj. useful or helpful constructive suggestions/criticisms/advice ▶ konstruktywny twórczy □ constructively /; US / adv. ▶ konstruktywnie twórczo
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consul /ˈkɒnsl; US / noun [countable] an official who works in a foreign city helping people from his or her own country who are living or visiting there the British consul in Miami ▶ konsul □ consular /ˈkɒnsjələ(r); US -səl- / adj. ▶ konsularny
radzić się, naradzać się
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consult, consult
2[intransitive] consult with sb to discuss sth with sb Harry consulted with his brothers before selling the family business. ▶ naradzać się z kimś konsultować się z kimś
[transitive] consult sb/sth (about sth) to ask sb for some information or advice, or to look for it in a book, etc. If the symptoms continue, consult your doctor. You can consult your dictionary if you’re not sure of a spelling. ▶ radzić się sprawdzać
konsultacja, firma konsultingowa
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consultation, consulting company
consultancy /kənˈsʌltənsi; US / noun (pl. consultancies) 1[countable] a company that gives expert advice on a particular subject ▶ firma konsultingowa 2[uncountable] expert advice that sb is paid to provide on a particular subject ▶ konsultacja
konsultant, doradca
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consultant, advisor
2 (Brit.) a hospital doctor who is an expert in a particular area of medicine a consultant psychiatrist ▶ lekarz konsultant
consultant /kənˈsʌltənt; US / noun [countable] 1 a person who gives advice to people on business, law, etc. a firm of management consultants ▶ konsultant/ka dorad-ca/czyni
naradzanie się, konsultacja
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consultation, consultation
2[countable] a formal meeting to discuss sth Diplomats met for consultations on the hostage crisis. ▶ konsultacja narada 3[countable] a meeting with an expert, especially a doctor, to get advice or treatment a consultation with a doctor konsultacja
[uncountable] the act of discussing sth with sb or with a group of people before making a decision about it The measures were introduced without consultation. ▶ naradzanie się
zużywać, konsumować
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to consume
3 (used about an emotion) to affect sb very strongly She was consumed by grief (ogarnął ją żal) when her son was killed. ▶ trawić (kogoś) być pochłoniętym (np. żądzą) 4 (used about fire) to destroy sth ▶ (ogień) trawić
1 to use sth such as fuel, energy or time This car consumes a lot of petrol. ▶ zużywać 2 to eat or drink sth Wrestlers can consume up to 10 000 calories in a day. ▶ konsumować spożywać
konsument, konsumentka
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consumer, consumer
consumer /kənˈsju: mə(r); US -ˈsu:- / noun [countable] a person who buys things or uses services Consumers should complain if they are not satisfied with the service they receive. ▶ konsument/ka
towary konsumpcyjne
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consumer goods
conˈsumer goods noun [pl.] goods such as food, clothing, etc. bought by individual customers ▶ towary konsumpcyjne
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2 the belief that it is good for a society or an individual person to buy and use a large quantity of goods and services ▶ konsumpcjonizm □ consumerist /; US / adj. consumerist values ▶ konsumpcyjny konsumpcjonistyczny
consumerism /kənˈsju: mərɪzəm; US -ˈsu:- / noun [uncountable] 1 the buying and using of goods and services green consumerism ▶ (ekon.) konsumpcja towarów
konsumpcja, zużycie
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consumption, consumption
2 the amount of fuel, etc. that sth uses Electricity consumption has increased by 12%. a car with low fuel consumption ▶ zużycie
consumption /kənˈsʌmpʃn; US / noun [uncountable] 1 the act of using, eating, etc. sth The meat was declared unfit for human consumption. ▶ konsumpcja spożycie
kontakt, styczność
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contact, contact
2[uncountable] contact (with sb/sth) the state of touching sb/sth This product should not come into contact with food. Don’t let the wires come into contact with each other. Nie pozwól, żeby przewody się stykały. ▶ styczność
[uncountable] contact (with sb/sth) meeting, talking to sb else I’ll get in contact with you some time next week. We keep in contact with our office in New York. I can’t help you, but I’ll put you in contact with someone who can. ▶ kontakt
łączyć się z kimś
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contact2 /ˈkɒntækt; US / verb [transitive] to telephone or write to sb Is there a phone number where I can contact you? ▶ kontaktować się z kimś łączyć się z kimś
soczewka kontaktowa
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contact lens
ˈcontact lens noun [countable] a small piece of plastic that fits onto your eye to help you to see better ▶ soczewka kontaktowa
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□ contagion /kənˈteɪdʒən; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ zakażenie zaraza
contagious /kənˈteɪdʒəs; US / adj. (used about a disease) that you can get by touching sb/sth Smallpox is a highly contagious disease. • (figurative) Her laugh is contagious. ▶ zaraźliwy zakaźny
zawierać, powstrzymać
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2 to keep sth within limits; to control sth efforts to contain inflation She found it hard to contain her anger. ▶ powstrzymywać
1 to have sth inside or as part of itself Each box contains 24 tins. ▶ zawierać Czasownika contain nie używa się w czasach continuous. Natomiast często spotyka się go w present participle (formie -ing): petrol containing lead
kontener, zbiornik
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container, tank
1 a box, bottle, bag, etc. in which sth is kept a plastic container a watertight container ▶ zbiornik pojemnik opakowanie 2 a large metal box that is used for transporting goods by sea, road or rail a container lorry/ship ▶ kontener
skazić, zanieczyszcić
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contaminate, contaminate
□ contamination /kənˌtæmɪˈneɪʃn; US / noun [uncountable] radioactive contamination ▶ skażenie zanieczyszczenie
contaminate /kənˈtæmɪneɪt; US / to add a substance which will make sth dirty or harmful The town’s drinking water was contaminated with poisonous chemicals. Children’s minds are being contaminated by violence on TV. ▶ skazić zanieczyszczać
kontemplować, rozważać
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2 to look at sb/sth, often quietly or for a long time ▶ kontemplować przypatrywać się
contemplate /ˈkɒntəmpleɪt; US / verb [transitive] 1 to think carefully about sth or the possibility of doing sth The idea was too awful to contemplate. Before her illness she had never contemplated retiring. ▶ zastanawiać się nad czymś rozważać
kontemplacja, medytacja
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contemplation /ˌkɒntəmˈpleɪʃn; US / noun [uncountable] 1 thinking deeply about sth ▶ rozmyślanie medytacja kontemplacja 2 looking at sth quietly ▶ przypatrywanie się kontemplacja
współczesny, dzisiejszy
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1 belonging to the same time as sb/sth else The programme includes contemporary film footage of the First World War. ▶ współczesny ówczesny 2 of the present time contemporary music/art/society ▶ współczesny dzisiejszy  SYNONYM  modern
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□ contemptuous /kənˈtemptʃuəs; US / adj. The boy just gave a contemptuous laugh when I asked him to be quiet. ▶ pogardliwy
contempt /kənˈtempt; US / noun [uncountable] contempt (for sb/sth) the feeling that sb/sth does not deserve any respect or is without value Some players show contempt for the rules. The teacher treated my question with contempt. ▶ pogarda
obraza sądu
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contempt of ˈcourt
conˌtempt of ˈcourt noun [uncountable] the crime of refusing to obey an order made by a court; not showing respect for a court or judge Any person who disregards this order will be in contempt of court ▶ niezastosowanie się do nakazu sądu obraza sądu
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□ contemptuously /; US / adv. to laugh contemptuously ▶ pogardliwie wzgardliwie
contemptuous (of sb/sth) feeling or showing that you have no respect for sb/sth She gave him a contemptuous look. He was contemptuous of everything I did The company has shown a contemptuous disregard for Henry’s complaints. ▶ pogardliwy wzgardliwy
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contender /kənˈtendə(r); US / noun [countable] a person who may win a competition There are only two serious contenders for the leadership. ▶ zawodni-k/czka kandydat/ka pretendent/ka
zawartość, treść
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content, content
the main subject, ideas The content of the essay is good, but there are too many grammatical mistakes. ▶ treść zawartość 3[sing.] the amount of a particular substance that sth contains Many processed foods have a high sugar content. ▶ zawartość
1 (contents) [pl.] the thing or things that are inside sth Add the contents of this packet to a pint of cold milk and mix well. The contents page (spis treści) tells you what is inside a book. ▶ zawartość
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content2 /kənˈtent; US / adj. [not before a noun] content (with sth); content to do sth happy or satisfied with what you have or do I don’t need a new car – I’m perfectly content with this one. ▶ zadowolony
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contented /kənˈtentɪd; US / adj. happy or satisfied The baby gave a contented chuckle. ▶ zadowolony □ contentedly /; US / adv. The cat purred contentedly. ▶ z zadowoleniem
zawody, konkurs
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contest1 /ˈkɒntest; US / noun [countable] a competition to find out who is the best, strongest, most beautiful, etc. The two men had an eating contest. The by-election will be a contest (walką) between the two main parties. ▶ zawody konkurs
walczyć o coś, kwestionować
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2 to say that sth is wrong or that it was not done properly They contested the decision, saying that the judges had not been fair. ▶ kwestionować
1 to take part in a competition or try to win sth Twenty-four teams will contest next year’s World Cup. ▶ walczyć o coś ubiegać się o coś
zawodnik, zawodniczka
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contestant /kənˈtestənt; US / noun [countable] a person who takes part in a contest Four contestants appear on the quiz show each week. ▶ zawodni-k/czka
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2 the words that come before or after a word, phrase or sentence that help you to understand its meaning You can often guess the meaning of a word from its context. Taken out of context, his comment made no sense. ▶ kontekst
the situation in which sth happens or that caused sth to happen The rise in nationalism must be seen in the context of changing attitudes in Europe. To put our company in context, we are now the third largest in the country. ▶ kontekst
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a continent
1 [countable] Asia, Africa and Antarctica are continents. ▶ kontynent 2(the Continent) [sing.] (Brit.) the main part of Europe not including Britain or Ireland We’re going to spend a weekend on the Continent. ▶ Europa
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(Brit.) connected with the main part of Europe not including Britain or Ireland continental holidays wakacje w Europie ▶ europejski 2 connected with or typical of a continent Moscow has a continental climate: cold winters. ▶ kontynentalny
rodzaj śniadania europejskiego
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continental breakfast
ˌcontinental ˈbreakfast noun [countable] a breakfast of bread and jam with coffee ▶ rodzaj lekkiego śniadania europejskiego ⇨ look at English breakfast
nieprzewidziany wypadek, ewentualność, możliwość
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contingency /kənˈtɪndʒənsi noun [countable] (pl. contingencies) a possible future situation or event We’d better make contingency plans (plany na ewentualność wypadku itp.) just in case something goes wrong. ▶ ewentualność nieprzewidziany wypadek
kontyngent wojskowy
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military contingent
2 a group of armed forces forming part of a larger force ▶ kontyngent wojsk
contingent /kənˈtɪndʒənt; US / noun [countable, with sing. or pl. verb] 1 a group of people from the same country, organization, etc. who are attending an event the Irish contingent at the conference ▶ delegacja
ciągły, bezustanny
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continually /-juəli; US / adv. She continually criticizes his behaviour. ▶ ciągle bezustannie
continual /kənˈtɪnjuəl; US / adj. [only before a noun] happening again and again His continual phone calls started to annoy her. ▶ ciągły bezustanny ustawiczny

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