My lesson "S"

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término English
definición English

Ralph's voice. the horse's eyes.
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You use possessive 's to show that something belongs to someone or is connected to someone. You usually use possessive 's when you are talking about people or animals.
's used to form possessives

children's games
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With a plural noun that does not end in s, you add 's.

my colleagues' offices.
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With a plural noun that ends in s, you add '.

the end of August... the front of the building.
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You do not usually add 's to nouns that refer to things.

He's a novelist.
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's is also a short form of is.
other uses of 's

She's gone home.
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's can also be used as a short form of has when has is an auxiliary verb.

Let's go outside.
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's can also be used as a short form of us after let.

The beaches are safe for children. This is a safe place to live.
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If something is safe, it is not dangerous and is not likely to cause harm. In this meaning, safe can be used in front of a noun or after a verb.
safe used to mean not dangerous

We're safe now. They've gone.
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If someone or something is safe, they are not in danger or not likely to be harmed. In this meaning, safe cannot be used in front of a noun.
safe used to mean not in danger

Each house has secure parking. You must keep your belongings secure.
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If something is secure, it is well protected.
secure

For now, his job is secure.
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A secure job will not end soon.

With her family, she felt secure and protected.
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If you feel secure, you feel safe and happy.

There has been an increase in the sale of bread making machines. He made a lot of money from the sale of his home in Kent.
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The sale of something is the act of selling it, or the occasion on which it is sold.
sale

The bookshop is having a sale.
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A sale is an event in which a shop sells things at less than their normal price.

She bought the coat on sale at a department store.
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If you buy something on sale, you buy it for less than its normal price.
on sale

I asked if the horse was for sale.
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If something is for sale, its owner is trying to sell it.
for sale

The two guards saluted the General.
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When someone such as a soldier salutes someone, they raise their right hand to their head as a formal sign of respect.
salute

He greeted his mother with a hug.
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Don't use salute to say that someone says hello to someone else. The word you use is greet.
greet

I feel so relaxed, she said.
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When you say something, you use your voice to produce words. You use say when you are reporting exactly what someone said.
say: the past tense form and past participle of say is said.

She said (that) they were very pleased.
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You can also report what someone said without mentioning their exact words. You use say and a clause beginning with that. You can often leave out that.

The woman said that Tom had left.
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Don't put a word such as me or her directly after say.

He told me that he was sorry.
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If you are mentioning the hearer as well as the speaker, you usually use tell, not say.
tell: the past tense form and past participle of tell is told. Don't use to after tell.

She told me to be careful.
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When you are talking about orders or instructions, you use tell, not say. Tell is followed by a to-infinitive.

You're telling lies now.
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You say that someone tells a story, a lie, or a joke.

I wasn't the only one asking questions.
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Don't say that someone says a question. Say that they ask a question.
ask

Police searched the hospital yesterday.
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If you search a place, you examine it carefully because you are trying to find something.
search used as a verb

Police are searching for clues. He's looking for his keys.
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Don't say that you search the thing you are trying to find. You can say that you searched for it or that you look for it.

I found the keys after a long search.
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A search is an attempt to find something by looking for it carefully.
search used as a noun

I can see the sea.
If you are talking about the present, you usually use can see. Don't use see in progressive forms.
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If you can see something, you are aware of it through your eyes.
see: using your eyes. the past tense form of see is saw. The past participle is seen.

He could see Wilson's face in the mirror. We suddenly saw a boat in the distance.
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If you are talking about the past, you use could see or saw.

You should see a doctor.
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If you see someone, you visit them or meet them.
see: meeting someone

Oh, I see what you mean.
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See is also used to mean understand.
see: understanding

She saw a man standing outside the building.
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When you see something, you are aware of it through your eyes, or you notice it. You can see things by chance.
see

He looked at the food on his plate.
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When you look at something, you deliberately direct your eyes towards it.
look at

I was here at home, watching TV. More than 1.2 million people watched the match.
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When you watch something, you look at it for a period of time.
watch

You use seem to say that someone or something gives a particular impression.

Even minor problems seem important. You seem to be very interested.
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Seem is usually followed by an adjective. You can use the adjective on its own, or after to be.
seem: used with adjectives

She seemed to be asleep.
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Some adjectives cannot be used in comparatives forms, for example dead, alive and asleep. For these adjectives, you use seem to be, not seem.

It seemed a long time before the food came. She seems to be a very happy girl. It seemed like a good idea.
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You can also use a noun phrase after seem or seem to be.
seem used with a noun phrase

You can say: She seemed a nice person or She seemed to be a nice person.
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In conversation, people often say She seemed like a nice person.

He had a bath and shaved.
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When a man shaves, he cuts hair from his face using a razor.
shave: shave is not usually a reflexive verb.

... a toy shop... a grocer's store.
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In British English, a building where you buy things is usually called a shop. In American English, it is usually called a store.
shop and store

... the furniture department of a large department store.
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In both British and American English, a large shop that has separate departments selling different types of goods is called a department store.

I don't like shopping.
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Shopping is the activity of buying things from shops.
shopping

They went shopping after lunch.
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When you go to the shops to buy things, you go shopping.

Who's going to do the shopping?
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When you go to the shops to buy things that you need regularly such as food, you do the shopping.
Shopping is an uncountable noun.

... a short holiday
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Short is an adjective. If something is short, it does not last for a long time.
short

Please take a seat.Dr. Garcia will see you shortly.
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Shortly is an adverb. If something is going to happen shortly, it is going to happen soon.
shortly

She told them briefly what had happened.
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Don't use shortly to say that something lasts for a short time. The word you use is briefly.
briefly

Crimes should be punished. I ought to call the police.
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You use should or ought to to say that something is the right thing to do.
should -ought to: moral rightness

You should be careful. I think you ought to see a doctor.
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You can say you should or you ought to when you are giving someone advice-
should - ought to: giving advice

We should be there by dinner time. The party ought to be fun.
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You use should or ought to to say that you expect something to happen.
should - ought to: expectation

You shouldn't go to the meeting. We oughtn't to laugh.
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Should and ought to have the negative forms should not and ought not to.
should - ought to: negative forms. Rhese are often shortened to shouldn't and oughtn't to.

I've been wearing glasses since I was three.
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You use since to talk about something that started in the past, and that has continued from then until now.
since: in sentences like this you use a perfect form with since.

I'm staying with Bob for a few days.
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You use for to say how long something lasts or continues.
for

He has been missing for three weeks.
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You also use for to say how long something has lasted or continued.
When you use for to say how long something has lasted or continued, you must use a perfect form.

I haven't been getting enough sleep recently.
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Sleep is the natural state of rest when your eyes are closed and your body is not active.
sleep: sleep can be a noun or a verb. The past tense form and past participle of the verb is slept.

He was so excited he couldn't sleep.
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When you sleep, you are in this state of rest.

She was asleep in the guest room when we walked in.
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If someone is in this state of rest, you say they are asleep.
asleep

Chris is still sound asleep in the other bed. Colette was fast asleep when we left.
You can say that they are sound asleep or fast asleep.
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Don't use asleep in front of a noun. You can say a sleeping child,

Be quiet and go to sleep!
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When someone changes from being awake to being asleep, you say that they go to sleep.
go to sleep

I felt asleep during the film.
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When someone goes to sleep suddenly or unexpectedly, you say that they fall asleep.
fall asleep

The room smelled of roses. Her clothes smelt of smoke.
The past tense form and past participle of the verb is smelled but smelt is also used in British English.
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You can say that a place or object smells of a particular thing.
smell: used as an intransitive verb

That soup smells delicious!
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You can also use smell with an adjective to say that something has a pleasant or unpleasant smell.

The fridge is beginning to smell.
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If you say that something smells, you mean that it has an unpleasant smell.

I can smell the ocean.
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If you can smell something, you are aware of it through your nose.
smell used as a transitive verb. Don't use smell in progressive forms.

I could smell coffee. People said they smelled gas in the building.
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If you are talking about the past, you use could smell, smelled or smelt.

Are you all right? -I think so. Will you be able to take driving lessons at your new school? -I expect so.
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You often use so after verbs like think, hope, expect and say. For example, if someone says Is Alice at home?, you can say I think so, meaning I think Alice is at home.
SO: referring back

These games are so boring.
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You can use so to emphasize an adjective.
so: used for emphasis

She was so nice. She was such a nice girl.
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However, if the adjective is in front of a noun, you use such as, not so.

She sings so beautifully.
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You can also use so to emphasize an adverb.

So - very - too
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So, very and too can all be used to emphasize the meaning of an adjective, an adverb, or a word like much or many.

I'm very happy.
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Very is the simplest way to make something stronger. It has no other meaning.
very

John makes me so angry! Oh thank you so much!
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You can use so to show that you feel strongly about something.
so

She wears too much make-up. Sorry, I can't stay. I'm too busy.
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You use too to talk about something that is more than you want or need.
too

We saw some children in the park. She had a piece of cake and some coffee.
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You use some to talk about an amount of people or things, without saying exactly how many or how much. You can use some in front of a plural or an uncountable noun.
some

Here are some suggestions.
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When you use some in front of a plural noun, you use a plural form of a verb.

There is some rice in the fridge.
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When you use some in front of an uncountable noun, you use a singular form of a verb.

I have read some of his stories. They took some of the money away.
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You use some of in front of a singular or plural noun phrase beginning with a determiner (a word such as the, these, my or his).
some of

Some of them have young children.
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You can also use some of in front of a plural pronoun such as us or them.

I don't have any plans for the summer holidays. We made this without any help.
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Don't use some in negative sentences. Use any. You can use any in front of a plural or uncountable noun.
any used in negative sentences


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