Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Competency-Based Assessment Model

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término English
definición English

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
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a coding system used to classify morbidity data from inpatient and outpatient records, physician offices, and most National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) surveys

World Health Organization (WHO)
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the entity that is responsible for coordination of all official disease classifications

internalizing disorders
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a group of disorders characterized by high levels of negative activity and represented by prominent symptoms of anxiety, depressive, and somatic symptoms

externalizing disorders
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a group of disorders that are characterized by symptoms of prominent antisocial behaviors, disruptive conduct, substance use, and impulsive disorders

competency-based assessment
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an approach to the assessment process that provides a conceptual framework using bio-psycho-social-spiritual theories and the DSM classification systems

biopsychosocial framework
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system that validates the potential importance of biogenetic, psychological, social, and environmental factors in understanding human behavior and is an element supporting the competency-based assessment

ecological perspective
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an aspect of the competency-based assessment that serves to draw attention to the client's multiple interactions with his or her environment

strengths perspective
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an aspect of the competency-based assessment that swerves to draw attention to the attributes, capacities, experiences, and resources in a person's life that contribute to a positive and satisfying life and effective social functioning

systems theory
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an aspect of the competency-based assessment that serves to organize the practitioner's understanding of human development aimed at appreciating the complex interactions between the individual and all aspects of that individual's biopsychosocial life

biomedical model
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model that delineates diagnostic criteria to explain behavior

psychodynamic model
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model that focuses on symptoms, behaviors, and underlying psychological processes to explain behavior

neurobiology
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a subdiscipline of both biology and neuroscience that studies the physiological, genetic, and developmental aspects of behavior

cenrtral nervous system
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a biological system that consists of the brain and spinal cord; receives, processes, interprets, and stores information and then sends messages to the muscles, glands, and organs

the basic building blocks of the nervous system

the parts of the neuron that receive messages from other cells

a term that refers to the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which keeps the entire cell alive and functioning

a part of the neuron that is attached to the soma and has the function of carrying messages out to other cells

myelin sheath
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structure of cells that wraps around the axon and serves t increase the speed at which nerve impulses are transmitted from one nerve cell to another

specialized structures that are placed at the axon terminal where neurotransmitter chemicals are released to communicate with target neurons

synaptic cleft
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a very small space where the axon terminal of one neuron almost touches the dendrite of another neuron

synaptic vesicles
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tiny sacs in the axon terminal that open and release a few thousand molecules of a neurotransmitter

acetylcholine (ACh)
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a neurotransmitter found in the hippocampus

the neurotransmitter that produces feelings of excitability

dopamine (DA)
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a neurotransmitter that can have differing effects, depending on location; associated with Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia

serotonin (5-HT)
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a neurotransmitter originating in the lower part of the brain that can have either an excitatory or inhibitory effect, associated with sleep, mood, anxiety, and appetite

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
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the major neurotransmitter producing inhibition in the brain

neuropeptides
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a group of substances that can serve as neurotransmitters or hormones or influence the action of other neurotransmitters

one set of neuropeptides that influences pain-controlling chemicals in the body

peripheral nervous system
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system that allows the brain and spinal cord to communicate with the sensory systems of the eyes, ears, skin, and mouth and allows the brain and spinal cord to control the muscles and glands of the body

limbic system
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the part of the brain involved in emotions, motivation, memory, and learning

a somewhat round structure located in the center of the brain that acts as a relay station for incoming information from the sensory organs to the cerebral cortex

cerebral cortex
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a cauliflower-like structure that is the largest part of the brain, covered by several thin layers of densely-packed cells

hypothalamus
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part of the brain that sits just below and in front of the thalamus and regulates body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleeping and waking, sexual activity, and aggression

hippocampus
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structure located toward the middle temporal lobe on each side of the brain that is instrumental in forming long-term permanent memories that are then stored elsewhere in the brain

the part of the brain located near the hippocampus involved in fear responses and memory of that fear

cingulate cortex
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structure that resembles a collar surrounding the anterior section of the corpus callosum and plays an important role in emotional and cognitive processing

the part of the brain located at the top of the spinal cord

structure about the size of a small fist that is the part of the brain involved in cognitive and emotional learning along with contributing to a sense of balance and coordination of muscle movements


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