(© Pearson 2016 SO2A) WORDLIST 7. FREEDOM

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término English
definición English

to no avail
Loneliness is not being alone, It’s loving others to no avail.
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if something you do is to no avail, you do not succeed in getting what you want
We searched the whole area but all to no avail. Robbie had disappeared.

in vain
I WISH but it's all in vain
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without success in spite of your efforts
Police searched in vain for the missing gunman.

frantically
Frantically: fast and nervous
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in an extremely worried and frightened way, so that you cannot control your feelings
There was still no news of Jill, and her parents were frantically searching for her.

extensively
Something that happens extensively occurs in a wide or broad way — on a large scale or across a large area. Road Salts: Extensively used, but are they safe?
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over a very large area
They search extensively for clues to the girl’s disappearance.

set off
You set off the alarm in the seat of my chair. It goes off when somebody tries to blow smoke up my rear.
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to make (an alarm) start ringing
Smoke from a cigarette will not normally set off a smoke alarm.

sound
If the alarm sounds leave the building immediately. To cause a noise to be made or say or shout a message to warn people about something.
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to warn people that something bad is happening
His bankers sounded the alarm when they discovered that money had gone missing from his accounts.

raise
In case of fire use the air horn to raise the alarm
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to warn people that something bad is happening
Neighbours raised the alarm when they smelled smoke.

trigger
the part of a gun that you pull with your finger to fire it: He pointed the gun and pulled the trigger. To make something start to happen.
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to make (an alarm) start ringing
A window blew open, triggering the alarm.

presume
Presume: to suppose something with some probability or evidence. Assume: to suppose without reason or evidence. Presume is a verb that means to suppose, to take for granted, or to dare. Presume is usually used when you suppose based on probability.
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to think that something is true, although you are not certain
From the way he talked I presumed, wrongly, that he was your boss.

to presume dead
Death is usually obvious. Cases arise where death is uncertain. A person is presumed dead, if unheard of for a long time, (often, but not exclusively 7 years)
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to accept that someone is dead until it is shown to not be true, especially in law
Their nephew was missing, presumed dead.

to presume innocent
innocent until proven guilty
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to accept that someone is innocent until it is shown to not be true, especially in law
The defendant is presumed innocent until he or she is found guilty.

suffer from
To live is to suffer, to survive is to find some meaning in the suffering.
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to have (a particular disease or medical condition), especially for a long time
Craig suffers from a rare bone disease.

migraine
headache type: sinus, tension, migraine, cluster
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an extremely bad headache, during which you feel sick and have pain behind your eyes
I won’t be coming this evening – I’m suffering from migraines.

asthma
asthma triggers: pets, exercising, pollen, stress, bugs in home, anger, cool air, pollution, smoking, dust
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a medical condition that causes difficulties in breathing
She carries an inhaler because she suffers with asthma.

amnesia
You're not going to get better if you don't start taking these pills. I keep forgetting. (Amnesia clinic)
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the medical condition of not being able to remember anything. Amnesia is the general term for a condition in which memory (either stored memories or the process of committing something to memory) is disturbed or lost.
After the accident, she woke up suffering from amnesia.

hay fever
Particles in air (allergens): pollen, dust mite debris, animal dander. Allergic symptoms: watery eyes, runny nose, itchy throat.
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a medical condition like a bad cold, that is caused by breathing in pollen (dust from plants)
John always suffers badly from hay fever in the summer.

investigation
find the answer: who, what, when, where, how, why
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an official attempt to find out the truth about or the cause of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem
The investigation continued for nearly three years.

launch
an event to celebrate or introduce something new
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to start something, usually something big or important
The authorities are planning to launch a full-scale investigation into the crash.

be the subject of
When a thing ceases to be subject of controversy, it ceases to be a subject of interest
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to be the thing that is talked about, dealt with or considered
The causes of the air crash are the subject of investigation.

pursue
So many goals? Which goals to pursue first?
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to continue trying to find out about or persuade someone about a particular subject.
A private detective was hired to pursue the investigation.

lead
How to lead without being the boss.
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to be in charge of a group of people who are trying to do something
The investigation is being led by a senior detective.

day shift
waking up after day shift vs waking up after night shift
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a particular period of time worked during the day, or the workers who work during one of these periods
He’s going to be on day shifts for five days.

night shift
Careers for night owls and early birds
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a particular period of time worked during the night, or the workers who work during one of these periods
She found it hard to stay awake during her night shifts at the factory.

early shift
A Haiku about getting out of bed: no, no, no, no, no, no...
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a particular period of time worked during the early hours of the day, or the workers who work during one of these periods
The early shift will be coming on in a few minutes.

late shift
Approximately 20% of the U.S. workforce performs shift-work. Shift-work is characterized as hours worked outside of the traditional 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. work
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a particular period of time worked during the later part of the day, or the workers who work during one of these periods
Nobody wants to do the late shift.

split shift
A person may work from 05:00 to 09:00, take a break until 2:00 and return to work until 7:00.
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a period of work that is divided into two or more parts on the same day, or the workers who work during one of these periods
She hates doing split shifts – they disrupt her sleep patterns.

10-hour shift
HOW YOU FEEL WHEN YOU FINALLY FINISH YOUR 10-HOUR SHIFT
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a period of 10 hours worked during a single day
I did 10-hour shifts every day last week.

motivate
Don't quit. Do it.
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to be the reason why someone does something
Was he motivated solely by his desire for power?

hesitate
A real man doesn’t hesitate when he finds the right woman
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to pause before saying or doing something because you are nervous or not sure
Kay hesitated for a moment and then said ‘yes’.

renovate
To repair, restore to good condition, to make new again. Repair, fix up, recondition.
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to repair a building or old furniture so that it is in good condition again
The hotel has been renovated and redecorated.

elaborate
“Would you please elaborate on "then something bad happened'?"
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to give more details or new information about something
He said he had new evidence, but refused to elaborate any further.

darken
Do not let the shadows of your past darken the doorstep of your future. Forgive and forget.
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to become dark or darker, or to make something dark or darker
The sky darkened and a few drops of rain fell.

strengthen
To make something strong or stronger. Building strength throughout the biceps can help strengthen the muscles in the shoulders and back.
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to become stronger or make something stronger
Our friendship has steadily strengthened over the years.

brighten
Brighten up someone's day, to make someone feel happier.
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to make something lighter or brighter
The morning sunshine brightened up the room.

prioritise
Why do we sometimes find it hard to prioritise?
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to put several things, problems etc in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important first
You need to prioritise your tasks.

legalise
They legalized alcohol, they legalized tobacco. What is it gonna hurt to legalize this medicinal, medical marijuana that's used for purposes of cataracts?
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to make something legal so that people are allowed to do it
Rules to legalise casino gambling could be introduced next autumn.

modernise
Make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to. update, overhaul, renovate, revive, restore, rejuvenate
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to make something such as a system or building more modern
They need more funds to modernise the country’s telephone system.

realise
To realise our dreams we must decide to wake up.
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to know and understand something, or suddenly begin to understand it
I suddenly realised that the boy was crying.

glorify
To glorify is to praise or honor something or someone to an extreme degree. If you like someone, you might compliment or praise them, but glorifying takes that a step further. When something is glorified, it is praised to the highest degree possible.
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to make someone or something seem more important or better than they really are, or to praise someone or something
I don’t like films which glorify violence.

electrify
Electrify: to excite or thrill.
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If a performance or a speech electrifies people, it makes them feel very interested or excited
She would sit at the piano and sing, electrifying us all.

exemplify
Exemplify: illustrate, represent, give an example. Gary Soto's stories exemplify the aspects of excellent short realistic fiction.
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to be a very typical example of something
The building exemplifies the style of architecture which was popular at the time.

exhaustion
The exhaustion cycle: busy (can't stop now); beatdown (can't take this); burnout (can't keep going).
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extreme tiredness
He collapsed with exhaustion.

production
The processes and methodes used to transform tangible (raw materials, semi-finished goods, subassemblies) and intangible inputs (ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services.
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the process of making or growing things to be sold, especially in large quantities
The production of consumer goods has slowed recently.

recollection
We are made wise not by the recollection of our past, but by the responsibility for our future.
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something from the past that you remember
My earliest recollections are of my mother bending over my cot. a light portable bed, especially one of canvas on a folding frame. British. a child's crib. a light bedstead.

immediacy
The model of immediacy. General: specific; there: here; them: you; then: now.
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when something is important or urgent because it relates to a situation or event that is happening now
Television brings a new immediacy to world events.

accuracy
Accuracy: The closeness of a given measurement to its true value, i.e. whether the measure is correct.
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the ability to do something in an exact way without making a mistake
He passes the ball with unerring accuracy.

tendency
An inclination, bent, or predisposition to something. Monica has a tendency to talk too much when she is nervous.
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If someone or something has a tendency to do or become a particular thing, they are likely to do or become it
Greg’s tendency to be critical made him unpopular with his co-workers.

clarity
Clarity brings success. Get clear on what you want and why you want it.
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the clarity of a piece of writing, law, argument etc is its quality of being expressed clearly
Letters may be edited for length and clarity.

stupidity
Stupidity is doing the same thing, over and over again, but expecting different results.
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behaviour or actions that show a lack of good sense or good judgment
Saying that showed his complete stupidity!

opportunity
Opportunity does not come gift-wrapped. You must take risks.
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a chance to do something or an occasion when it is easy for you to do something
I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you all.

embarrassment
The shame you feel when your inadequacy or guilty is made public. How I feel when: I mispronounce a word, I fall in public, I sing the wrong lyrics, I have food in my teeth, I get emotional.
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the feeling you have when you are embarrassed (uncomfortable or nervous and worrying about what people think of you)
She suffered extreme embarrassment at not knowing how to read.

enjoyment
Enjoyment is an incredible energizer to the human spirit
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the feeling of pleasure you get from having or doing something, or something you enjoy doing
Acting has brought me enormous enjoyment.

harassment
Sexual harassment is unwanted sexual conduct and it can happen anywhere, at any time, it can include unwanted flirting, cat calling, touching without consent, sexual favours, crude gestures/jokes.
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when someone behaves in an unpleasant or threatening way towards you
African-Americans have been complaining about police harassment for years.

loneliness
At the innermost care of all loneliness is a deep and powerful yearning for union with one's lost self. deep yearning: profunda ânsia
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being unhappy because you are alone or do not have anyone to talk to
Her loneliness is caused by being on her own all day.

unhappiness
Emotion in itself is not unhappiness. Only emotion plus an unhappy story is unhappiness.
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being not happy
Leslie had a lot of unhappiness in her childhood.

tiredness
Amazingly easy ways to get rid of tiredness. How to beat tiredness and increase energy levels: eat breakfast, drink more water, cut out caffeine, eat energy-boosting foods, sleep soundly, exercise, lose weight, manage your stress level.
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the feeling that you want to sleep or rest
He began to fall asleep from tiredness.

engineer
Engineers are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost
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someone whose job is to design or build roads, bridges, machines etc
He trained as a civil engineer.

musician
Musicians: creative people. Music band: group of young and smiling musician.
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someone who plays a musical instrument, especially very well or as a job
She was a talented young musician.

professor
Every email to a professor should adhere to the standard construct of a letter, which includes an opening salutation, the body of the message, and an appropriate signoff.
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a teacher of the highest rank in a university department
She’s been named the professor of English.

applicant
-We need someone really responsible in this job. -I'm the guy. Whenever anything goes wrong, my boss says I am responsible.
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someone who has formally asked, usually in writing, for a job, university place etc
He was one of 30 applicants for the manager’s job.

attendant
How to Become a Flight Attendant - Ultimate Guide to Flight Attendant Job.
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someone whose job is to look after or help customers in a public place
Jim got a holiday job as a car park attendant.

disinfectant
that which disinfects; an agent for removing the causes of infection, as chlorine.
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a chemical or a cleaning product that destroys bacteria
The tables were washed with disinfectant at the end of the day.

clearance
Storm clearance. Not all storms come to disrupt your life, some come to clear your path.
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the process of getting official permission or approval for something
She’ll race if she gets medical clearance from her doctor.

reappearance
the fact of someone or something arriving, becoming visible, or coming into existence again. "we were taken aback at her sudden reappearance"
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the act of appearing again after not being seen for some time
Many of these ideas make a reappearance in his later books.

pretence
Pretending to be someone you're not is a waste of the person you are.
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a way of behaving which is intended to make people believe something that is not true
How long are you going to keep up the pretence of being ill?

dominant
Are you dominant or submissive?
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more powerful, important, or noticeable than other people or things
The dominant male gorilla is the largest in the group.

redundant
Exceeding what is needed, superfluous; unnecessary to the sense, as words. I'll be busy the rest of the day, Martha. The boss wants me to take one of his redundant letters!
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if you are redundant, your employer no longer has a job for you
Seventy factory workers were made redundant in the resulting cuts.

independent
Be Your Own Hero - Be More Independent.
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an independent organisation is not owned or controlled by, or does not receive money from, another organisation or the government
There are plans to split the corporation into a number of smaller independent companies.

scandalous
causing general public outrage by a perceived offense against morality or law.
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completely unfair and wrong

rebellious
showing desire to resist authority, control, or moral codes. Disobedient, unruly, unmanageable.
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deliberately not obeying people in authority or rules of behaviour
How would you like to take charge of a class of rebellious teenagers?

suspicious
I do this face so you know I'm suspicious.
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thinking that someone might be guilty of doing something wrong or dishonest
Some of his colleagues at work became suspicious of his behaviour.

capable
Don't underestimate yourself. You are capable of more than you can ever imagine. You are capable of AMAZING things.
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having the qualities or ability needed to do something
I don’t think he’s capable of murder.

edible
The main difference between eatable and edible is that eatable is related to the taste or palatability of a food whereas edible is more associated with the safety.
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something that is edible can be eaten
These berries are edible, but those are poisonous.

visible
visible Definition: able to be seen Synonym: clear, seeable Antonym: invisible Part of speech: adjective
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something that is visible can be seen
The outline of the mountains was clearly visible.

persuasive
How to be persuasive The art of getting what you want!
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able to make other people believe something or do what you ask
Trevor can be very persuasive.

elusive
Unable to understand something? It's eluding you! Elusive describes being difficult to grasp or retain. Things that are elusive hard to find, pin down, or remember. They slip right out of your grasp.
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an elusive person or animal is difficult to find or not often seen
She managed to get an interview with that elusive man.

evasive
Is it wrong to be evasive and not answer questions? I don't know. Ask your mother.
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not willing to answer questions directly
Paul’s being a bit evasive about this job.

massive
The path to success is to take massive, determined action
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very large, solid, and heavy
The bell is massive, weighing over 40 tons.

respectful
Are You a Respectful Person?
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feeling or showing respect
They listened in respectful silence.

helpful
Hello! I am ... someone who can help!
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providing useful help in making a situation better or easier
Thank you for your advice; it’s been very helpful.

resourceful
He may not be accurate but he's resourceful!
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good at finding ways of dealing with practical problems
She is a woman who is energetic and resourceful.

deeply
Dive deep. To Explore Deeply my Reason for Existence
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used to emphasise that a belief, feeling, opinion etc is very strong, important, or sincere
Teachers are deeply divided on this issue.

financially
How to tell if you're financially healthy.
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in a way relating to money or the management of money
He was successful and financially secure.

dramatically
A tiny change today brings a dramatically different tomorrow.
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greatly and suddenly
Computers have changed the workplace dramatically.

extensively
An extensively retouched image of a rabbit drive taking place in South Australia, circa 1930
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widely, over a great area
As a student, he travelled extensively in the Middle East.

supposedly
When I am supposedly on a diet and someone asks if it's going well...
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used when saying what many people say or believe is true, especially when you disagree with them
How could a supposedly intelligent person be so stupid?

censorship
The worst thing about censorship is...
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the practice or system of examining books, films, letters etc to remove anything that is considered offensive, morally harmful, or politically dangerous etc
The information given to the press was subject to censorship by the Ministry of Defence.

exorbitant
You have to pay exorbitant interest if you have credit card debt.
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an exorbitant price, amount of money etc is much higher than it should be
He paid an exorbitant price for his house.

nationalist
Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of Mankind.
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a nationalist organisation, party etc wants to gain or keep political independence for their country and people
We have seen the rise of the nationalist movement in the country.

governor
Governor's responsabilities: sets policy, appoints people to state jobs, creates budget, recommends and signs laws, commands state's National Guard.
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the person in charge of governing a country that is under the political control of another country
His last post was as governor of a British colony.

responsive
To be receptive to an idea or proposal. It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.
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reacting quickly, in a positive way
We try to be responsive to the needs of the customer.

senility
Doc, I think I'm getting senile. General times lately, I have forgotten to zip up. That's not senility, replied the doctor. Senility is when you forget to zip down.
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being mentally confused or behaving strangely, because of old age
His senility is becoming more of a problem.

fabricate
To construct; to make up (a story). It was evident to all who heard him that Jim fabricated his story to save himself from embarrassment.
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to invent a story, piece of information etc in order to deceive someone
The police were accused of fabricating evidence.

likelihood
Risk analysis combining likelihood/probability with consequences/severity:
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the degree to which something can reasonably be expected to happen
Using a seatbelt will reduce the likelihood of serious injury in a car accident.

personable
Social Media in two words: BE PERSONABLE
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someone who is personable is attractive and pleasant
She is a very personable young woman.

kindliness
If we lose affection and kindliness from our life: we lose all that gives it charm.
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the quality of being kind and caring for other people
Mrs Smith’s kindliness to my wife was much appreciated

identical
Identical twins, also scientifically referred to as monozygotic twins, occur when 2 offspring are developed from one single egg. Fraternal twins, also scientifically referred to as dizygotic twins, are 2 offspring that are developed from 2 separate eggs.
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exactly the same, or very similar
The sisters were identical in appearance and character.

repetition
Writing over and over on the board is repetition.
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doing or saying the same thing many times
The job involved the constant repetition of the same movements.

sarcasm
Sarcasm: the ability to insult idiots without them realizing it.
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a way of speaking or writing that involves saying the opposite of what you really mean in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed
‘Good of you to arrive on time,’ George said, with heavy sarcasm.

glorify
Definition of self-glorification: a feeling or expression of one's own superiority.
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to make someone or something seem more important or better than they really are
I don’t like films that glorify violence.

troublesome
troublesome - trouble-causing, disturbing; something that worries you
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causing problems, in an annoying way
Her three-year-old son was quite troublesome.

classy
Classy is when you have a lot to say but you choose to remain silent in front of fools.
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fashionable and expensive
There were some classy restaurants in the capital city.

expertise
Expertise Ability Experience Knowhow
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special skills or knowledge in a particular subject, that you learn by experience or training
What he’s bringing to the company is financial expertise.

remission
Sorry, Louise, old age doesn't go into remission.
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a period when a serious illness improves for a time
The cancer has gone into remission.

anxious
You can let yourself be anxious even though your goal is to reduce anxiety.
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worried about something
He was a bit anxious about the safety of the machinery.

heroic
The definition of heroic is a strong and courageous person or a story about deeds by those with these qualities.
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extremely brave or determined, and admired by many people
She made heroic efforts to save her family.

sympathy
Empathy: I feel how you feel. Sympathy: I know how you feel.
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the feeling of being sorry for someone who is in a bad situation
I have a lot of sympathy for her; she had to bring up the children on her own.

effect
Cause Any event or condition that anticipates or precipitates another event or condition Effect Any event or condition that is caused by another event or condition
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a change that is caused by an event, action etc
My parents’ divorce had a big effect on me.

impose
To impose means to force or inflict something on someone else. It was okay, but they sure impose a lot of deadlines!
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if someone in authority imposes a rule, punishment, tax etc, they can force people to accept it
The court can impose a fine.

frivolous
Definition: lacking in seriousness or importance Antonym: serious, sober Sentence: Kim Kardashian’s frivolous marriage annoyed me because I don’t think either of them were ever serious about their relationship.
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not serious or sensible, especially in a way that is not suitable for a particular occasion
The court discourages frivolous law suits.

envy
Envy – Main Causes Dissatisfaction (Focusing on what one doesn’t have rather than what one does have). Comparison to others. Pride (The false idea that one deserves a life filled with personal gain and satisfaction).
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the feeling of wanting something that someone else has
He watched the other boys with envy.

hesitate
Don’t hesitate to be as revolutionary as science. Don’t hesitate to be as reactionary as the multiplication table.
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to pause before saying or doing something because you are nervous or not sure
Kay hesitated for a moment and then said ‘yes’.

enthusiastic
Be enthusiastic. Enthusiasm and positivity are contagious. Happy people are more engaged and productive.
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feeling or showing a lot of interest and excitement about something
All the staff are enthusiastic about the project.

chauvinist
A person who blindly believes in the superiority of his/her own country, race, gender or group
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someone, especially a man, who believes that their own sex is better or more important that the other sex
He’s a bit of a male chauvinist.

take time out
Sometimes you need to be alone in order to reflect on life. Take time out to take care of yourself. You deserve it.
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to rest or do something different from your usual job or activities
In between jobs, Liz always took time out to return to her first love – travelling.

have a breather
Sometimes you just have to take a breather from reality.
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to stop what you are doing for a short time in order to rest, especially when you are exercising
I’m really tired – let’s stop for a while and have a breather!

take your mind off
Take your mind off something” means “to do something to help you forget. Take your mind off yourself. Focus on what you are doing and how you can do it better.
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to stop thinking and worrying about (something), or to make someone do this
Going back to work helped take my mind off Ian’s death.

switch off
I just can't switch off. How to Switch Off When You're Really Stressed.
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to relax for a short time
They switch off by listening to music.

let your hair down
Let your hair down and have a little fun.
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to enjoy yourself and start to relax, especially after working very hard
The party gave us all a chance to really let our hair down.

unwind
Time to Unwind
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to relax and stop feeling anxious
The country hotel was the perfect place to unwind.

burn the candle at both ends
To work from early in the morning until late at night without taking time to rest. To try and do too much work in a short amount of time with very little rest. To work more than you need to or should do. To overwork without a break.
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to get very tired by doing things until very late at night and getting up early in the mornings
He’s been burning the candle at both ends for far too long.

while away
while away on vacation
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to spend time in a pleasant and lazy way
The evenings were whiled away in endless games of cards.

hang out
When people chill and do things together
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to spend a lot of time in a particular place or with particular people
I don’t really know who she hangs out with.

chill out
Dear self, let yourself chill out.
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to relax completely instead of feeling angry, tired, or nervous
I spent the afternoon chilling out in front of the TV.

work all hours
This is your dad! He never actually left us - he's spent every waking minute working all hours trying to be a success!
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to work for a long time
He’s been working all hours trying to get the business up and running.

burn the midnight oil
It’s exam week, so many of us are “burning the midnight oil,” meaning staying up late to work or study. Hang in there!
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to work or study until late at night
I’ll need to burn the midnight oil if I’m to get this job finished in time.

deliberately
in a deliberate unhurried manner; with intention; in an intentional manner
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if you do something deliberately, you do it because you want to
I deliberately kept the letter short.

unsupervised
I’m currently unsupervised. The possibilities are endless. What will you do when there is no one else around?
empezar lección
without being in the charge of, or looked after by, another person
without being in the charge of, or looked after by, another person

encourage
Encourage One Another
empezar lección
to make (something) more likely to exist, happen, or develop
Violent TV programmes encourage anti-social behaviour.

independence
Independence is loyalty to one’s best self and principles, and this is often disloyalty to the general idols and fetishes.
empezar lección
the freedom and ability to make your own decisions in life, without having to ask other people for permission, help, or money
Having a job gives you financial independence.

over- protectiveness
You're overprotective, Mother. Pool entrance.
empezar lección
the quality of being so anxious to protect someone from harm that you restrict their freedom
He was guilty of over-protectiveness towards his children.

risk-averse
Risk attitude. risk-averse. Seeking to avoid risks and withdraw from risky situations. risk seeking. actively seek risk, in the belief that higher the risk equals higher the returns.
empezar lección
not willing to take risks
Shareholders are more risk-averse than they used to be.

deal with
Handle it. Accept it. Look. I don't like it any more than you do, but we have to get rid of the cat. Deal with it!
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to take the necessary action, especially in order to solve a problem
Don’t worry, I’ll deal with this.

danger
The possibility of suffering harm or injury. A person or thing that is likely to cause harm or injury. Drought is a danger.
empezar lección
the possibility that someone or something will be harmed, destroyed, or killed
The refugees believe that their lives are in danger.

take risks
Take risks. If you win, you will be happy; if you lose, you will be wise.
empezar lección
to do things that might have bad results
Isn’t he taking risks in coming here?

mollycoddle
You don't have to be excessively harsh, but mollycoddling your kids does them no good either.
empezar lección
to treat someone too kindly and to protect them too much from anything unpleasant
He had been mollycoddled as a young boy.

expose
Sometimes people try to expose what's wrong with you because they can't handle everything that's right about you.
empezar lección
to put someone in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant
The report revealed that workers had been exposed to great danger.

colonial domination
Colony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly
empezar lección
control by a country that controls and rules other countries, usually ones that are far away
They were subject to colonial domination for centuries.

revere
It is difficult to free fools from the chains they revere. To view someone with respect and admiration.
empezar lección
to respect and admire someone or something very much
He is revered as a national hero.

figurehead
A person who rules in name only.
empezar lección
someone who seems to be the leader of a country or organisation but who has no real power
The Queen is merely a figurehead.

clampdown
To clamp down on: To take action to stop unwanted activity (crime, something harmful, etc.) The teacher clamped down on talking in the classroom. The government is clamping down on illegally parked cars.
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sudden firm action that is taken to reduce crime
The police announced a clampdown on drug dealers. (repressão)

outrage
Outrage, combining as it does shock, anger, reproach, and helplessness, is perhaps the most unmanageable, the most demoralizing of all the emotions.
empezar lección
a feeling of great anger and shock
The response to the jury’s verdict was one of outrage.

galvanise
Teams galvanize around a common goal. Excite or stimulate something or someone into action.
empezar lección
to shock or surprise someone so that they do something to solve a problem, improve a situation etc
The possibility of defeat finally galvanised us into action.

crowning moment
Success is not just the crowning moment, the spiking of the ball in the end zone or the raising of the flag on the summit. It is the whole process of reaching for a goal and, sometimes, it begins with failure
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a time that makes something complete or perfect, or is the best feature of something
Their crowning moment was the winning of the cup in 1966.

rest on somebody’s shoulders
to be someone’s responsibility. If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.
empezar lección
if blame or a difficult job rests on somebody’s shoulders, they have to take responsibility for it
The blame rests squarely on Jim’s shoulders.


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