Catholic Church reformer who tried to reform Church from within. Father of Christian Humanism. Wrote In Praise of Folly and Handbook of the Christian Soldier. Critiqued Scholasticism and Church practices such as pluralism and corruption.
Split in Papal authority during the 14th century. Led to a pope in France as well as Rome after Pope Clement V was brought to Avignon by Philip IV of France. Caused disillusionment and calls for reform within the Church.
English reformer in the 14th Century. De-emphasized rituals and extravagance within the Church, and stressed the role of faith and study of the scriptures. His reforms were adopted by the Lollard Knights, but never gained popular support.
Idea of separating Church power between the clergy and the pope. Arose in response to the Great Schism. Discussed during the Council of Constance. Led to reduced Papal authority until Pope Pius II abolished it.
German Monk who started a successful reform movement within the Catholic Church. Emphasized salvation by faith alone and condemned the lavishness of the clergy. Codified his beliefs in his attack on indulgences, The 95 Theses.
Any sect of Christianity "protesting" the Catholic Church. First popular protestant movement was Lutheranism, which was followed by others such as Calvinism. Led to religious wars and disagreements between Catholics and Protestants for centuries to come.
Holy Roman Emperor during the 16th century. Opposed Lutheranism's spread, but was caught up fighting the Ottomans, so he could not intervene. Eventually signed the Peace of Augsburg, granting Lutherans religious toleration.
Disagreement between Luther and Zwingli over the ceremony of the Eucharist. Luther believed in consubstantiation, and Zwingli believed communion was a symbol. First disagreement between Protestant forces.
French religious reformer. Believed in predestination. Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. Began the Calvinist church. Became popular in Switzerland, the Netherlands, and France. Granted freedom in the Peace of Westphalia.
The doctrine of Calvinists, originally proposed by Calvin. This doctrine rejected the necessity of good works to achieve salvation and started the Protestant work ethic, as wealth was a sign of being chosen for salvation.
King of England, and religious conservative who condemned Luther with support from the pope. However, the pope would not let him divorce his wife, so he passed the Act of Supremacy, proclaiming him the "head of the Church of England."
Response to the Protestant Reformation. Main contributors were the Council of Trent, Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits, the Ursaline Nuns, and the Baroque art style. Re-established the supremacy of the pope and the traditional beliefs of the Church.