5. 1 ARTICLES

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término English
definición English

Check what you know. Complete the sentences with a(n), the or no article.
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Then check your answers in the article.

In 2002, some obese U.S. teenagers filed (?) lawsuit against McDonald's, accusing (?) fast food chain of fattening them up.
a problem or complaint that a person or organization brings to a court of law to be settled
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In 2002, some obese U.S. teenagers filed a lawsuit against McDonald's, accusing the fast food chain of fattening them up.
a group of shops, hotels etc that are owned by the same person or company a chain of restaurants a supermarket chain

In (?) America, (?) reality television's popularity has risen in the 21st century, in (?) USA there are two television channels devoted to it.
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In America, reality television's popularity has risen in the 21st century, in the USA there are two television channels devoted to it.

(?) World Health Organization says up to twenty-nine percent of (?) British men and nineteen percent of (?) women smoke.
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The World Health Organization says up to twenty-nine percent of British men and nineteen percent of women smoke.

Developed in (?) late 1880s, (?) modern car was initially the toy of (?) wealthy, but falling prices have made it (?) key part of family life.
the wealthy people who have a lot of money or possessions
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Developed in the late 1880s, the modern car was initially the toy of the wealthy, but falling prices have made it a key part of family life.

Complete the rules 1-6 in the table with a(n), the or -.
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Write a word or phrase from the sentences above as an example of each rule.

RULE 1 a/an with singular countable nouns when you are not talking about a particular thing, or when you mention something for the first time.
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a lawsuit, a key part (not the only key/important part of family life)

Use the with any type of noun when you and your reader/listener know wich particular thing you are talking about, for example because it is unique or it has been mentioned before.
RULE 2
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the fast food chain (mentioned before - McDonald's), The World Health Organization (unique).

Use no article with plural and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general.
RULE 3
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British men (plural), women (plural), reality television (uncountable)

Use no article with most place names such as continents, countries, cities.
RULE 4
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America

Use the in fixed phrases such as in ... 1960s, in ... beginning. In some country names.
RULE 5
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in the late 1880s, the USA.

Use the with a singular countable noun or an adjective used as a noun for something in general.
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The wealthy, the modern car.

WEAK FORMS AND LINKING: the
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Look at sentences 1-3. Circle the where it is pronounced /ðə/ and underline it where it is pronounced /ði/.

The interesting thing is that many of the people who hate it are the ones who watch it.
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The interesting thing is that many of the people who hate it are the ones who watch it.
1- /ðə/ 2-/ði/ 1- the people; the ones 2- the interesting

The automobile has done less well since the economic crisis.
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The automobile has done less well since the economic crisis.
1- /ðə/ 2-/ði/ 2- the automobile; the economic crisis

Those who voted for the car mentioned the harm it does to the environment as the biggest problem.
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Those who voted for the car mentioned the harm it does to the environment as the biggest problem.
1- /ðə/ 2-/ði/ 1- the car; the harm; the biggest problem 2- the environment

What is the rule?
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The word has three standard pronunciations, which vary by context. The definite article ‘the’ is normally pronounced /ð?/ before a consonant sound and /ði/ before a vowel sound.
Neither of these is a stressed syllable. However, it also has a ‘stressed’ pronunciation used for emphasis, which is always /ði?/ no matter what sound should follow it. The vowel here is held longer than in the unstressed version.

Listen to the pronunciation.
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What sound is used to link the and the following vowel?

the interesting thing; the automobile; the economic crisis; the environment
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2- /ði/ the interesting thing; the automobile; the economic crisis; the environment

Bicycle chosen as best invention
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Complete the text with the correct articles, a(an), the or no article.

(1) humble bicycle
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The humble bicycle

has won (2) UK national survey
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has won a UK national survey

of (3) people's favourite inventions.
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of people's favourite inventions.

Listeners to BBC Radio 4's You and Yours programme were invited to vote in (4) online poll
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Listeners to BBC Radio 4's You and Yours programme were invited to vote in an online poll

looking at (5) most significant innovations since 1880.
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looking at the most significant innovations since 1880.

It was (6) easy victory
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It was an easy victory

for (7) bicycle,
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for the bicycle,

which won more than half of (8) vote.
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which won more than half of the vote.

Second came (9) radio with 8% of the vote, and the electro-magnetic induction ring - the means to harness electricity -came third.
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Second came the radio with 8% of the vote, and the electro-magnetic induction ring - the means to harness electricity - came third.

Despite the fact that you can find them everywhere, (10) computers gained just 6% of the vote
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Despite the fact that you can find them everywhere, computers gained just 6% of the vote

and (11) internet trailed behind with only 4% of all votes cast.
There were more than 4,500 votes cast in total.
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and the internet trailed behind with only 4% of all votes cast.

People chose the bicycle for its simplicity of design, universal use and because it is (12) ecologically sound means of transport.
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People chose the bicycle for its simplicity of design, universal use and because it is an ecologically sound means of transport.


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