3.1 LONELY PLANET: NOUN PHRASES

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Compound nouns: cave houses, fingerprint, candy-floss, (?)
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Compound nouns: cave houses, fingerprint, candy-floss, film set

Compound adjectives: long-tail boat (a boat with a long tail), nine-year-old girl (the girl is nine years old), (?)
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Compound adjectives: long-tail boat (a boat with a long tail), nine-year-old girl (the girl is nine years old), five-mile-long, six-lane sea road
When the noun part is plural, it becomes singular in a compound.

Adverb + adjectives combination: refreshing cool breeze, (?)
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Adverb + adjectives combination: refreshing cool breeze, uniquely photogenic city

Adjectives: delicious slice of home-made apple pie, (?)
When several adjectives come before the noun, they need to be in a specific order.
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delicious slice of home-made apple pie, longest wooden bridge
Value adjectives (which give your opinion) come first, followed by size, shape, colour, origin and material.

Prepositional phrases: a camera for filming short video clips, (?)
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Prepositional phrases: a camera for filming short video clips, for a closer look

Participial clauses: waves crashing against the sea wall, (?)
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Participial clauses: waves crashing against the sea wall, approaching in the distance

I like coffee.
black / strong / small cups of / freshly ground
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I like small cups of freshly ground, strong, black coffee.

He bought the house.
by the river / little / pretty
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He bought the pretty little house by the river.

She made cakes.
with strawberries and fresh cream on top / delicious / dark chocolate /two
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She made two delicious, dark chocolate cakes with strawberries and fresh cream on top.

He smokes cigars.
which Juan gives him / hugely expensive / Cuban / those / enormous
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He smokes those hugely expensive, enormous Cuban cigars, which Juan gives him.

They carried the books.
ridiculous heavy / massive pile of / all the way up seven flights of stairs
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They carried the massive pile of ridiculous heavy books all the way up seven flights of stairs.

It was a dog.
incredible smelly / hairy / guard / but rather friendly
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It was an incredible smelly, hairy but rather friendly guard dog.

I went to the shop. It sold shoes. It was advertised on television.
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I went to the shoe shop advertised on television

The man was old. He was walking with a stick.
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He was an old man walking with a stick.

We ate the cakes. They were home-made. They were absolutely delicious. We were sitting in the sunshine.
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We ate the absolutely delicious, home-made cakes, sitting in the sunshine.

They rented a house. It was nice. It was near the airport. It had a swimming pool.
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They rented a nice house with a swimming pool near the airport.

We went to a restaurant. It was big. It was a pizza restaurant. It was on the outskirts of town. It was run by two Italian brothers. They were called Gino and Rino.
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We went to a big pizza restaurant on the outskirts of town, run by two Italian brothers called Gino and Rino.

Is the main stress on the first or the second word of a compound noun/ adjective?
cave houses, fingerprint, candy-floss, film set, long-tail boat, nine-year-old girl
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The main stress comes on the first word of the compound noun/adjective.

home-made / a slice of / chocolate / delicious / on top / cherries / with / cake
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A slice of delicious, home-made chocolate cake with cherries on top.

a / mountain bike / bright red / with fifteen gears / heavy-duty / brand new
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A brand new, bright red, heavy-duty mountain bike with fifteen gears.

Greek / sea food / it's a / of the best / fresh / restaurant /some / small / in the area /which serves
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It's a small, Greek restaurant, which serves some of the best fresh seafood in the area.

with / a / soup / traditional / freshly baked / bean / Tuscan / bread
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A traditional, Tuscan bean soup with freshly baked bread.

a / medieval / castle / ancient / steep / on top of a very / hill / fascinating
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A fascinating, ancient, medieval castle on top of a very steep hill.

The shop serves custard tarts and good coffee.
The shop serves tarts and coffee.
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custard tarts: compound noun; good coffee: adjective + noun

The shop serves delicious hand-made custard tarts and extraordinarily good strong black espresso coffee.
The shop serves tarts and coffee.
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delicious: adjective; hand-made: compound adjective; extraordinarily good: adverb + adjective combination; strong black expresso: adjectives

The shop serves delicious hand-made custard tarts with a sprinkle of cinnamon on top and tiny cups of extraordinarily good strong black espresso
The shop serves tarts and coffee.
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with a sprinkle of cinnamon on top: prepositional phrase; tiny cups of: adjective + noun

The old pastry shop in central Lisbon serves delicious hand-made custard tarts with a sprinkle of cinnamon on top and tiny cups of extraordinarily good strong black espresso coffee.
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old: adjective; pastry shop: compound noun; in central Lisbon: prepositional phrase

I drink tea.
cups of / Japanese green steaming hot / to keep me awake
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I drink cups of steaming hot Japanese green tea to keep me awake.

They bought the house.
old / farm / on top of the hill
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They bought the old farmhouse on top of the hill.

I bought a computer.
top-of-the-range / laptop / brand-new / with all the latest graphic technology
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I bought a brand-new top-of-the-range laptop computer with all the latest graphic technology.

She went for a run.
in the rain / five-mile-long / cross-country
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She went for a five-mile-long cross-country run in the rain.


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