Grammar - De grammatica

 0    27 tarjetas    VocApp
descargar mp3 imprimir jugar test de práctica
 
término
definición

Extremely Simplified Grammar
A few simplified rules which shall allow you to form MORE OR LESS correct and understandable sentences.
empezar lección
Extreem eenvoudige grammatica

nouns in plural
guest - guests; film - films
empezar lección
noun + "-en"/"-s"
de gast - de gasten; de film - de films

diminutive form
cat - kitty
empezar lección
noun + "-je"
In Dutch diminutives are quite often used in everyday language. They're all neuter nouns!
de kat - het katje

comparative form of an adjective
big - bigger
empezar lección
adjective + "-er"
groot - groter

superlative form of an adjective
big - biggest
empezar lección
adjective + "-st"
groot - grootst

formation of adverbs from adjectives
good - well
empezar lección
adjective = adverb
In Dutch adjectives and adverbs have THE SAME form
goed - goed

negation (1)
I have no money.
empezar lección
geen
negating indefinite or uncountable nouns only
Ik heb geen geld.

negation (2)
I can't come because I'm sick.
empezar lección
niet
negating verbs, definite nouns etc. or a sentence as a whole
Ik kan niet komen want ik ben ziek.

basic conjugation pattern
empezar lección
infinitive form for all persons in plural; for 1st person singular: infinitive minus "-en"; for 2nd and 3rd persons singular: 1st person singular form + "-t" (unless there is already "t")

polite "you"
Could you help me, please?
empezar lección
u
Kunt u me even helpen?

position of a verb in a sentence
empezar lección
the verb (almost) always comes SECOND

affirmative sentence in the present tense (1)
I live in Manchester.
empezar lección
noun + verb + the rest
excluding sentences with inverted structure
Ik woon in Manchester.

affirmative sentence in the present tense (2)
Morgen ga ik naar de school.
empezar lección
part of a sentence + verb + noun + the rest
inverted structure
Tomorrow I go to school.

negative sentence in the present tense
I don't eat meat.
empezar lección
noun + verb + "geen"/"niet" + the rest
Ik eet niet vlees.

question in the present tense
Where is my room?
empezar lección
(interrogative word) + verb + noun + the rest
Waar is mijn kamer?

root of a verb
empezar lección
infinitive minus "-en"
almost always the same as the 1st person singular form
werken (to work) - werk

past participle
empezar lección
"ge-" + root of a verb + "-d"/"-t"
used primarily in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum"); not to be confused with the English past perfect tense!
werken (to work) - gewerkt

affirmative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum") (1)
I met a few friends.
empezar lección
noun + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
non-inverted structure
Ik heb enkele vrienden ontmoet.

affirmative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum") (2)
Yesterday I met a few friends.
empezar lección
part of a sentence + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + noun + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
inverted structure
Gisteren heb ik enkele vrienden ontmoet.

negative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum")
I didn't meet him.
empezar lección
the same structure as in the affirmative sentence + "geen" before the negated noun/"niet" before the past participle
Ik heb hem niet ontmoet.

question in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum")
Who did you meet yesterday?
empezar lección
(interrogative word) + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + noun + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
Wie heb je gisteren ontmoet?

verb in the "imperfectum" tense
empezar lección
root of the verb + "-te"/"-de" (singular) or "-ten"/"-den" (plural)
"het imprefectum" is one of Dutch past tenses
werken (to work) - werkte/werkten

sentence structure in the "imperfectum" tense
I was in Rome a month ago.
empezar lección
the same as in the present tense with a verb taking on the "imperfectum" form
"het imprefectum" is one of Dutch past tenses
Ik was in Rome één maand geleden.

affirmative sentence in the future tense
I will do it later.
empezar lección
noun + conjugated "zullen" + the rest of the sentence + infinitive
Ik zal het later doen.

negative sentence in the future tense
I won't do it.
empezar lección
the same structure as in the affirmative sentence + "geen" before the negated noun/"niet" before the infinitive
Ik zal het niet doen.

question in the future tense
When will you do it?
empezar lección
(interrogative word) + conjugated "zullen" + noun + the rest of the sentence + infinitive
Wanneer zal je het doen?

How to best learn grammar?
empezar lección
How to best learn grammar? inglés
Remember and use as many correct phrases and sentences as possible in your speaking. And then learn (and remember) the rules.


Debes iniciar sesión para poder comentar.